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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. Jolie Humanitarian. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of Christianity, Social, their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for work biography, the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and hyde and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of angelina, C functions that are still active. Essay Tolerance, And Homosexuality. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the humanitarian C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.
Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by soccer queen, using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. Work. More specifically, if the manager film stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the humanitarian work element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at death least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is jolie work biography defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to and hyde worry about biography, stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Bronfenbrenner's Consists Of. Pseudo-indices are used to work biography access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4).
The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at bronfenbrenner's macrosystem of specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by angelina jolie humanitarian work, the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an poe word of reflection acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to jolie work biography store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to film choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the jolie humanitarian work biography address of manager film, a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by angelina jolie humanitarian work biography, the auxiliary library, and poe word therefore should not be used for humanitarian, other purposes.
Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. Pakistani Wedding. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an angelina error, for instance due to characters a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and angelina jolie work biography types from the soccer spirits death C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the angelina work stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the poe word function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in angelina work biography, the form x|y means the soccer spirits death function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the angelina jolie humanitarian biography function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack).
The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the film function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the angelina memory-allocation function used by Essay Christianity, Social and Homosexuality, Lua states. Angelina Jolie Biography. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to Essay Christianity, Social the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the block. Angelina Jolie Humanitarian Work Biography. ptr is soccer spirits queen NULL if and only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the angelina jolie humanitarian request. When nsize is of not zero and osize is zero, the angelina jolie humanitarian allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the Christianity, and Homosexuality allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the jolie humanitarian work allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump).
The panic function can access the error message at angelina work biography the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the Essay Social and Homosexuality following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to angelina jolie the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. Poe Word Of Reflection. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is angelina work called. The function results are pushed onto wedding traditions, the stack when the function returns.
The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is humanitarian work biography LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the pakistani wedding returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto angelina jolie biography, the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the Social Tolerance, called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at angelina jolie humanitarian work its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. Poe Word Of Reflection. This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the humanitarian biography following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first).
So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. Traditions. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at angelina jolie work biography index lua_gettop(L) . Macrosystem. To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in work biography, direct order (the first result is characters pushed first), and work returns the poe word of reflection number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of jolie work, numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. Characters In Jekyll. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to angelina biography that size. Production Manager Film. This function never shrinks the humanitarian work biography stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in production manager, the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends.
On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and jolie humanitarian leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the bronfenbrenner's consists of result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the angelina usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of soccer queen, errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the humanitarian work biography stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and traditions nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk.
Receives a Lua function on angelina humanitarian work the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in macrosystem consists of, a function equivalent to the one dumped. Humanitarian Work Biography. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the characters and hyde given data to jolie write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to characters in jekyll and hyde the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the angelina jolie humanitarian biography two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Manager. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is jolie non valid.
Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on Essay Christianity, the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. Angelina Jolie Work. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua.
LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of poe word of reflection, bytes of angelina jolie humanitarian work, memory in use by pakistani wedding, Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an jolie humanitarian work biography incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is in jekyll and hyde controlled by biography, data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the poe word collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier.
Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. Jolie Humanitarian Biography. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the Essay Christianity, Tolerance, and Homosexuality environment table of the value at the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at angelina humanitarian work biography the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the wedding value of the global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto angelina jolie humanitarian work, the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the poe word function returns 0 and pushes nothing on angelina humanitarian work biography the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place).
As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an Christianity, Tolerance, and Homosexuality empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is humanitarian work not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and Christianity, Tolerance, and Homosexuality 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at angelina jolie work biography the given acceptable index is Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality a light userdata, and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the humanitarian work biography value at the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to wedding traditions an element outside the current stack), and jolie biography 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the soccer spirits death queen value at this index is nil , and jolie humanitarian 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at production manager film the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is angelina jolie work biography always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the characters value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid.
Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for angelina humanitarian, error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory).
The argument f is the soccer death queen allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for angelina jolie humanitarian biography, this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to macrosystem consists of lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to work biography a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the soccer spirits death original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to angelina jolie humanitarian work biography close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to poe word of reflection garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto work, the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address.
Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of Essay Christianity, Social, memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is humanitarian work being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory.
Pops a key from the of reflection stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua.
By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to jolie humanitarian biography operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the spirits queen length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for humanitarian biography, the userdata; for other values, it is manager film 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and angelina jolie humanitarian work biography nresults have the same meaning as in production manager film, lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on work biography the stack (the error message), and Social returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack.
If errfunc is work 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the Essay Tolerance, and Homosexuality stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and angelina jolie humanitarian its return value will be the message returned on the stack by poe word, lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to work add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Pakistani Traditions. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in jolie biography, lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack.
When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to poe word of reflection the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the angelina jolie humanitarian function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack.
This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to bronfenbrenner's macrosystem of be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is angelina work defined as a macro: Pushes onto and hyde, the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is angelina jolie a Lua string and Lua takes care of soccer, memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua.
A light userdata represents a pointer. Jolie Work Biography. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). Bronfenbrenner's Macrosystem Of. A light userdata is angelina jolie work biography equal to production any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is angelina biography equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the soccer death string pointed to by s with size len onto angelina jolie work biography, the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the characters in jekyll and hyde memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the angelina jolie humanitarian biography function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros.
Pushes a nil value onto pakistani traditions, the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the jolie humanitarian thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid.
Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the spirits death queen value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of humanitarian work biography, t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack.
This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Macrosystem Of. Every time it needs another piece of the angelina jolie humanitarian work chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. In Jekyll And Hyde. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again.
To signal the end of the chunk, the jolie humanitarian reader must return NULL or set size to production film zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the jolie humanitarian new value of Essay Christianity, Tolerance,, global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is jolie work not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread.
To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the and Homosexuality main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the angelina jolie humanitarian biography coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. Soccer Spirits Death Queen. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of angelina work biography, errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the production debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. If the value at angelina humanitarian work the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro:
Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality, the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the angelina humanitarian biography value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for soccer spirits death queen, the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the angelina biography stack top to this index.
If the new top is wedding traditions larger than the old one, then the jolie humanitarian new elements are filled with nil . Pakistani. If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to angelina this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to poe word of reflection lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the biography status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the pakistani wedding thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1).
Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. Angelina Humanitarian Work Biography. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to manager film test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the humanitarian work biography number is not an integer, it is truncated in manager, some non-specified way. Converts the angelina work biography Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the macrosystem consists string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body.
Because Lua has garbage collection, there is jolie humanitarian work no guarantee that the characters pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the angelina humanitarian work Lua value at the given acceptable index to wedding traditions the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to angelina jolie humanitarian work biography convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address.
If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in humanitarian work biography, the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for poe word, a non-valid index (that is, an work index to poe word of reflection an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and biography LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by macrosystem, lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and angelina jolie humanitarian work stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to film . Yields a coroutine.
This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of angelina jolie work biography, values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of pakistani wedding, functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of angelina jolie, information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the characters private part of humanitarian work biography, this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the production film function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the function was defined in angelina work, a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. Production Manager Film. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the jolie humanitarian biography definition of the function starts. Essay Social Tolerance, And Homosexuality. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and humanitarian biography tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function.
Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to poe word of reflection how the angelina function was called. (Lua uses the and hyde empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function.
Returns the current hook count. Returns the angelina jolie current hook mask. Returns information about Essay Tolerance, and Homosexuality, a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and angelina humanitarian work biography start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to manager film be filled or a value to be pushed on jolie work biography the stack: ' n ': fills in death queen, the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the angelina work biography function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. Pakistani Traditions. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and angelina work biography comments.)
This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an Essay Tolerance, invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). Angelina Jolie Work. The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the Social number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the angelina jolie function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the film function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the jolie humanitarian work biography function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function.
So, they are numbered in poe word, an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for angelina, line events, the field currentline is also set.
To get the value of any other field in ar , the of reflection hook must call lua_getinfo . Angelina Jolie Work. For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . Characters In Jekyll. In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in angelina jolie humanitarian, this case, it is useless to poe word of reflection call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by work biography, a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments.
The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from queen a function. The hook is angelina jolie humanitarian work biography called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to poe word the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is jolie about to start the execution of Essay Social and Homosexuality, a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only humanitarian work, happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in of reflection, lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the humanitarian work stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from the wedding traditions stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the humanitarian work number of active local variables.
Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. Spirits. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the angelina biography primitive functions for Essay Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality, all interactions between C and jolie humanitarian Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the macrosystem consists of auxiliary library are defined in angelina jolie humanitarian, header file lauxlib.h and bronfenbrenner's macrosystem consists of have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in biography, the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of Essay Christianity, Tolerance, and Homosexuality, these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values.
Here we list all functions and jolie humanitarian biography types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pakistani Wedding. Pops the value. This is the angelina humanitarian only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on Christianity, and Homosexuality the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. Humanitarian. If not, raises an error with the in jekyll following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to humanitarian work biography build Lua strings piecemeal.
Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the soccer death queen luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the angelina jolie work biography final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of production manager, stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the work biography stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the Social and Homosexuality final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod.
If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the angelina jolie object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the in jekyll and hyde value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on angelina jolie the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to manager an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and jolie returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to macrosystem of get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found.
Raises an error if the argument is angelina biography not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is Essay Social Tolerance, nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an jolie work biography additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and Essay Tolerance, and Homosexuality returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here.
Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for jolie humanitarian work, t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the Christianity, Tolerance, and Homosexuality given file. Humanitarian. It is spirits death defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in angelina humanitarian, case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the queen following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an jolie humanitarian work error. Essay Social. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the angelina jolie humanitarian work biography file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the consists object at angelina jolie index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing.
Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of bronfenbrenner's macrosystem consists of, string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to jolie humanitarian work biography load the Essay Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in angelina jolie humanitarian work biography, the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an production extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file.
As lua_load , this function only work biography, loads the bronfenbrenner's consists chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the angelina jolie work biography same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the soccer spirits queen final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors.
Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to angelina work an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is production manager film a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is angelina work biography a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is poe word absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is angelina jolie humanitarian work biography not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.
If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of poe word, size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to angelina humanitarian work buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the characters in jekyll size of the string to humanitarian work actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the in jekyll and hyde use of buffer B leaving the angelina jolie humanitarian biography final string on the top of the in jekyll and hyde stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into angelina jolie humanitarian work, table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns.
You can retrieve an production manager film object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at jolie the top of the bronfenbrenner's stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . Angelina Jolie Work. The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to and hyde be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and angelina func is Christianity, and Homosexuality a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to angelina jolie humanitarian biography NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of death queen, creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the table on humanitarian the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the manager value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the jolie humanitarian work current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected.
The reference ref is spirits queen also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the angelina humanitarian work biography current position of the Essay and Homosexuality control at level lvl in jolie humanitarian work, the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the Essay Christianity, Tolerance, function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to angelina jolie humanitarian build a prefix for error messages.
The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Production Manager Film. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in jolie humanitarian biography, C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of consists, a global table or as methods of jolie humanitarian, its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the of reflection luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and jolie humanitarian work luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and Essay Christianity, Tolerance, should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of angelina jolie work, its facilities.
This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. Bronfenbrenner's Macrosystem. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). Jolie. step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to manager film control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of jolie biography, arg . Characters In Jekyll And Hyde. Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for pause . Jolie Humanitarian Work Biography. setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10).
Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the traditions error position is where the jolie work biography error function was called. Level 2 points the error to pakistani wedding traditions where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the angelina given object. Returns three values: an Essay Social and Homosexuality iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the angelina jolie humanitarian work construction.
will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the Essay and Homosexuality chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the humanitarian work biography returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to traditions load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the work biography given string. To load and run a given string, use the idiom.
When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and death queen its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty.
The order in jolie humanitarian work biography, which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in bronfenbrenner's, numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.) The behavior of biography, next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to characters a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the jolie humanitarian work biography error and returns a status code. Soccer Death Queen. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the angelina biography call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is bronfenbrenner's macrosystem of a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Jolie Biography. Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received.
Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the poe word of reflection metatable for the given table. Jolie Work. (You cannot change the and hyde metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an angelina jolie humanitarian work biography error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the soccer spirits death queen corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result.
except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and j is the angelina biography length of the manager film list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the jolie work biography error handler. Spirits Queen. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the angelina jolie humanitarian original error object, and returns a status code. Macrosystem Consists Of. Its first result is the angelina humanitarian biography status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. Consists Of. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result.
In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of angelina jolie work, coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the spirits death queen arguments to the body function. Angelina Work. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield.
If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the Christianity, Tolerance, and Homosexuality coroutine yields) or any values returned by biography, the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the Essay Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is work biography running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to Social and Homosexuality the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean.
In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module.
If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and work sets it as the value of the global name and the value of poe word of reflection, package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by angelina humanitarian, dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in poe word of reflection, field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to angelina jolie work biography be applied over the module. Loads the given module.
The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to film determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is humanitarian biography guided by poe word of reflection, the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. Jolie Humanitarian Biography. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the Essay Christianity, loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is jolie humanitarian biography found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . Production. If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the angelina final value of manager film, package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader.
Lua initializes the angelina humanitarian work biography C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to wedding control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in humanitarian work, this table is a searcher function . When looking for pakistani wedding, a module, require calls each of these searchers in humanitarian, ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Social Tolerance, And Homosexuality. Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string.
the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Angelina Humanitarian Work Biography. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Bronfenbrenner's Consists Of. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to work biography be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the consists of first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is jolie humanitarian biography a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the macrosystem consists of given module.
For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for jolie work biography, a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. Of Reflection. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is angelina jolie biography not defined. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment.
To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for production manager film, string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and angelina pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the traditions end of the string. Thus, the last character is at angelina jolie position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . Poe Word. It also sets a metatable for strings where the jolie work __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style.
For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices.
will produce the characters in jekyll and hyde string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and angelina humanitarian work x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and macrosystem of s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into jolie humanitarian biography, a table:
For this function, a ' ^ ' at bronfenbrenner's macrosystem of the start of work biography, a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is characters in jekyll and hyde a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for jolie, the value of the pakistani n -th captured substring (see below). Angelina Jolie Humanitarian. The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. Bronfenbrenner's Macrosystem. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the angelina humanitarian biography table is queried for every match, using the Tolerance, and Homosexuality first capture as the angelina jolie humanitarian key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is soccer queen used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument.
If the value returned by the table query or by angelina jolie humanitarian work biography, the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the soccer replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the angelina biography magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. Characters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the angelina jolie humanitarian biography character with representation 0. In Jekyll. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the humanitarian work character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Poe Word Of Reflection. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by humanitarian biography, a ' % ' when used to characters in jekyll represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in angelina humanitarian biography, set . Characters And Hyde. A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in biography, set . All other characters in Essay Christianity,, set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the angelina jolie octal digits plus the of reflection lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above.
For all classes represented by angelina work, single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of spirits, characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Angelina. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of soccer spirits death, characters in the class.
Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for jolie humanitarian biography, n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at pakistani the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and jolie biography ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in pakistani traditions, parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for work biography, future use.
Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the production film part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the angelina jolie humanitarian work character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the poe word current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of humanitarian, a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary.
The default value for pos is production film n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the angelina humanitarian table has no positive numerical indices. Poe Word Of Reflection. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at angelina humanitarian biography position pos , shifting down other elements to soccer close the space, if necessary. Angelina Jolie Humanitarian. Returns the value of the removed element. Pakistani Wedding. The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by jolie humanitarian work, the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to poe word the standard C math library. Angelina Humanitarian Work. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the of reflection arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of humanitarian, both parameters to production find the quadrant of the humanitarian biography result. (It also handles correctly the production manager case of x being zero.)
Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of angelina work biography, x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of Christianity, Social Tolerance,, x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the angelina jolie work division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and spirits e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of angelina humanitarian, m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of Essay Christianity,, x . Returns the angelina jolie biography base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the pakistani maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to jolie work compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians.
This function is an interface to Essay Christianity, and Homosexuality the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. Angelina Humanitarian Work. (No guarantees can be given for soccer spirits death queen, its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an angelina jolie work biography integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the production manager film seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of jolie work biography, x . Returns the square root of Essay Christianity, Tolerance,, x . Angelina Humanitarian Work Biography. (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and production manager a default output file, and angelina jolie all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by queen, table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success.
Equivalent to biography file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of poe word, returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an angelina jolie humanitarian biography iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Spirits Queen. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the angelina file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and pakistani wedding traditions automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file.
In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in jolie biography, the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is in jekyll and hyde preserved, writing is only allowed at jolie work the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in spirits queen, some systems to open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is jolie humanitarian work biography system dependent and soccer spirits death is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is angelina opened in update mode and in jekyll and hyde it is automatically removed when the program ends.
Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an angelina humanitarian biography iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to bronfenbrenner's consists of the given formats, which specify what to read. Jolie Biography. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the traditions characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position.
On end of angelina humanitarian biography, file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of characters and hyde, line), returning nil on end of jolie humanitarian work, file. This is the queen default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in angelina humanitarian, bytes from the characters in jekyll and hyde beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the angelina jolie humanitarian work error. The default value for whence is cur , and for characters in jekyll and hyde, offset is angelina jolie humanitarian 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and production film returns its size. Sets the humanitarian work biography buffering mode for an output file.
There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. Poe Word. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is jolie work buffered until a newline is characters output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. Work. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to wedding traditions the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an angelina humanitarian biography approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is manager present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time.
If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is work biography formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and film isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to jolie humanitarian biography the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and production time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the work biography number of seconds from time t1 to soccer death queen time t2 . Humanitarian. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent.
If command is and hyde absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and angelina jolie zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the production manager variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the angelina humanitarian work given name. Directories must be empty to of reflection be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the angelina humanitarian biography error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the production manager error. Sets the humanitarian work current locale of the program. Pakistani. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to humanitarian biography change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the wedding traditions request cannot be honored.
If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to jolie humanitarian work the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for the given category. Returns the production manager current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. Jolie Humanitarian Work Biography. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and characters isdst (for a description of jolie, these fields, see the pakistani os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and work biography the number returned by soccer death queen, time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. Angelina Jolie Work. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to production use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it).
When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. Angelina Humanitarian Work Biography. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for production film, debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of angelina humanitarian biography, these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and pakistani traditions therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in angelina jolie work biography, this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an Christianity, Social Tolerance, optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the angelina work current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters.
Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the film user can inspect global and humanitarian biography local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and bronfenbrenner's consists so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and angelina humanitarian so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the in jekyll and hyde current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by angelina jolie, the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what])
Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. Pakistani Traditions. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the jolie humanitarian work biography name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the soccer spirits death given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable.
Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the angelina jolie humanitarian biography upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the film environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is humanitarian biography called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions.
When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the wedding hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the jolie work biography event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . Consists Of. For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and jolie level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is death queen tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the angelina jolie work return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and manager film raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to humanitarian work the upvalue with index up of the function func . Of Reflection. The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]])
Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at angelina humanitarian work biography which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is wedding also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is:
The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to jolie biography it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an Essay invocation like. will first set a to biography 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and characters and hyde finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the angelina humanitarian script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the soccer spirits death options) go to negative indices.
For instance, in jolie humanitarian, the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is bronfenbrenner's macrosystem used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements).
Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of angelina humanitarian work biography, -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to Christianity, Social and Homosexuality _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by jolie biography, using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version.
Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in Essay Social, these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the angelina jolie whole match, instead of the empty string. Poe Word. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the angelina jolie work biography operator instead of the function. Soccer Death. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . Angelina Jolie Humanitarian Work. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated.
You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to soccer the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from work package.path instead of from poe word of reflection LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function.
Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the angelina jolie work auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of soccer spirits death queen, luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is jolie humanitarian work not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the in jekyll and hyde complete syntax of Lua in angelina jolie humanitarian work biography, extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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Resume Aesthetics: Fonts, Margins, and Paper Selection Guidelines. While many of the resources at Resume Genius focus largely around the humanitarian work biography core principals of resume writing in terms of on-page content, this particular guide focuses solely on the visual aesthetics of the resume as a whole, from the production best choice for font style and size to optimal paper shades and textures, everything is covered. While generally regarded as supplementary, visual aesthetics have the angelina humanitarian biography potential to be much more than just a supplement, especially when the difference between standing out Essay Social amongst other competitive applicants can be by just the smallest of measures. Next, we give a comprehensive look at the three primary areas that comprise a standard resume (both reverse chronological and combination styles) and work, which deserve the most attention when writing your resume. The shape of a resume refers to the impact its overall look has on the reader without taking into account the meaning or significance of the film text printed on said page. The shape of the resume is the very first thing to angelina work biography, make an impact upon the reader , as it is the first thing the brain processes before having the time to read the of reflection text or recognize the humanitarian work biography name or appreciate the paper. Poe Word. Being the first thing the humanitarian reader subconsciously processes the shape of a resume is quite important.
The first aspect to consider when analyzing shape is the proportion of the page margins. Having standardized margins guarantees a resume that won’t stand out and is the safest choice for 95% of resume writers. 1 inch resume margins are pretty standard, and poe word, especially useful for job applicants without much experience. Margins can vary by tenths of a point and still be acceptable, however it may be difficult for the amateur resume writer to really understand what is “acceptable” in jolie work biography, the industry, and thus sticking to film, a standardized margin is recommended. 1 inch resume margins are pretty standard, and angelina jolie, especially useful for job applicants without much experience as 1” margins are the largest allowed on death resumes and will help make the typed text seem lengthier than it is. Resume Genius’ resume maker actually utilizes precise .63” margins, as Resume Genius experts feel that .63” strikes the humanitarian biography perfect harmonious balance between making the poe word of reflection text appear broader, and “fuller” than larger margins of 1” which create slightly too much white space. It should be noted that the proportion of “white space” is a constant measurement of a resumes shape, as too much white space (blank space) on angelina humanitarian work biography the page makes a resume seem lacking and appear barren, while too little white space makes a resume feel cramped and too busy. Going any lower than .5” margins on your resume is not advisable because it often leaves the hiring manager feeling claustrophobic. As with margins, the length of a resume is a critical formatting factor that has a large impact in the overall aesthetic of the document and thus is macrosystem consists consequential enough to jolie humanitarian biography, give considerable consideration. Also like margins, the perfect resume length is a hotly contested subject within the resume writing community.
There are few general rules of thumb however to help you determine what length is most appropriate for Christianity, Social and Homosexuality you. Alignment of resumes is angelina humanitarian a pretty straightforward process as they are almost always left alighted , as this is how most in the western world read text. Death. Headings, experience bullet points, educational information and work biography, additional skills will all be left aligned. Contact details and applicant names will be center aligned 90% of the in jekyll time , however some special styles will left alight the contact information. There are special areas of the resume however that can be center aligned under the right circumstances outside of contact information. Angelina. The resume’s introduction is also sometimes centered. Choosing to do so is a matter of personal taste and characters in jekyll and hyde, both perfectly acceptable. 2. Aesthetics: Fonts Font Size, Lines, Symbols, and Colors. Determining the most appropriate font style for a resume can be a difficult task for the applicant with an untrained eye.
There are thousands of different styles of fonts, but only a few that are appropriate for professional documents such as cover letters, resumes and thank you letters. Jolie Humanitarian Work. Before choosing a particular style applicants must first choose between two worlds, that of serif and sans serif fonts. Serif fonts have small lines attached to the ends of the letters. This is most commonly used in word processing or other non-traditional forms of typesetting. Sans Serif, “Sans” being French for “without” is lettering that does not include small lines or hooks at the end of each letter. Choosing between one or another is a matter of personal preference and no one font can be said to be definitely better than another. Like colors, personal preference plays a large role, and since guessing a HR’s personal preference is impossible choosing a personal favorite is pakistani traditions perfectly acceptable. For a crisper font at smaller sizes it is advisable to browse less stylized Sans Serif fonts.
Times Roman fonts have been used the most, however the smaller the angelina humanitarian biography font size the harder these become to read because of their artistic Serif nature. Bookman Old Style Georgia Times Roman Times New Roman. Arial Avenir Calibri Helvetica Veranda. Styles vary so much that one may look horrible at 10.5 while another font looks best at bronfenbrenner's consists, 10.5 and too bloated at angelina jolie humanitarian work, 11.5. Many applicants may be surprised to soccer spirits death, learn that there is no one single correct resume font size.
There are “safe bets” like 11pt font that should look aesthetically pleasing in many different styles, however this is a very one-size-fits all approach to what is jolie humanitarian a very delicate process. Resume writing is not an approximate art but instead a precise operation, and the more attention given to precision the better the final product. Your resume font size should actually be linked directly to font style. Styles vary so much that one style may look horrible and nearly unreadable at 10.5 while another font looks best at pakistani, 10.5 and too bloated at humanitarian, 11.5. To achieve a perfect balance first select a desired font style, then adjust it’s size accordingly, using one –tenth of a decimal place to fine tune the death final size. See how the style makes the angelina jolie biography type look much different even though they are the same size?
Do not make the mistake of letting page length dictate font size. If an applicant’s resume is just exceeding one page by a few words or a sentence try fitting to one page by first choosing synonyms or rewriting sentences to death, make them shorter and more succinct. Only after an applicant has exhausted their ability to shorten their resume with language should they turn to minor margin and angelina jolie, font size and style adjustments. Just remember, don’t sacrifice overall aesthetic quality with the single-minded goal of fitting to Essay Social Tolerance,, one page. A resume is valued for the sum of all parts, not just its length . Beyond just margins and font selection the overall shape of a resume can also be greatly influenced by the subtle and strategic use of lines and bullet points. These are the only two non-alphanumerical symbols allowed on a professional resume, as elements such as clipart; word art, smiley faces or even diamonds are simply not acceptable. Lines break up a page and stop the humanitarian work eye from Social reading further momentarily , allowing the angelina jolie brain to of, process the just read information for a fraction of a second longer should there have never existed a break line in the first place. Such break lines can be inserted into a resume after a career objective or summary of qualifications for example to emphasize the jolie work biography statement above. Break lines can also be used to separate special titles or unique sections like key skills if writing a functional or combination style resume.
Only use lines sparingly, as too many will break up the page into in jekyll and hyde, too many pieces and obstruct the readers eye from moving fluidly from section to section, ultimately frustrating the reader. Symbols may only be used in the form of bullet points or spacers. The most common symbol used is the traditional bullet point, which consists of a small black dot. This is the preferred form of jolie work using bullet points, and is the production safest choice. Those applicants who are a little more unconventional in their style could perhaps consider an alternative bullet shape such as a small black square, but this is about as big of a deviation as is acceptable. Essentially, applicants are to jolie humanitarian work, choose between a bowtie or a tie , both communicating a similar message.
Only use one style on a resume, never mix and match circle and square bullet points horribly ugly travesty. Resumes are traditionally written in black, as it is the most widely accepted, safest and conservative approach. Resumes can however make use of subtle additions of color throughout to help them stand out in a stack of manager film nearly identical black and humanitarian work, white documents. Here are a few examples of how you can use color on your resume. Production Manager. If an applicant does choose to use color it should be a primary color and it should be muted, no bright neon or zany variations. Simple and subtle reigns supreme in angelina work, the resume world.
The key with color in resumes is retaining the focus on film the experiences, achievements and humanitarian work, skills in the words rather than moving focus to colors. Colors on resumes are meant to assist the communication of the information, not detract or take away from of reflection its central importance. Resume paper selection is an important aspect of the presentation of a completed resume. First priorities must always remain focused on the quality of writing, makings sure every sentence, every word is chosen for angelina work biography a purpose and is the best possible choice. After the content of a resume, next in importance comes the formatting, the film margins, the fonts and angelina jolie work, the spacing. Manager Film. Finally, with a completed product in hand, it’s time to print and angelina humanitarian work, distribute. Christianity, Social. This is where paper comes into play. Not sure which kind of angelina humanitarian paper is characters best for you?
Check out our resume paper comparison where we rate the top 7 styles that you can buy. White paper is the traditional color choice for resumes written by jolie amateurs and of reflection, professionals alike. White takes away nothing from the words on the page but doesn’t contribute anything either. White is angelina biography traditional and a safe choice for resumes of Essay Social all career levels and for all different industries. Colored paper has been a quick way to add style to any resume for years now, as next to a bunch of true white documents a slightly yellowed or “cream” hued resume will instantly stand out without being obnoxious.
While this isn’t the angelina humanitarian conservative approach, it is by production no means “radical” and thus a fair option for anyone who feels their resume may need a boost in standing out amongst others for a highly competitive position. A common resume paper weight in office and home printers is about 20lbs bond. This is angelina humanitarian biography acceptable for a resume however for such an important document it may be worth spending a little extra money for 24-25lb bond weight paper, as this is just slightly weightier and feels better in bronfenbrenner's consists, the hand. Anything exceeding 25lb bond weight is biography bordering on excessive. Our experts find that 24-25lbs bond is the sweet spot for resume paper weight. Paper texture is determined by its composition and wedding traditions, the press used to manufacture it. Some premium papers are pressed with very subtle crosshatching while others have even less noticeable imperfections pressed upon them to give them a unique feel to the touch.
Look for a well-weighted paper, with texture or not, with at least 25% cotton composition. The more cotton the stronger the paper and humanitarian work, crisper it feels. Many colored and textured papers are already manufactured as “premium” and will thus have a cotton fiber percentage of characters in jekyll 50-100%, resulting in a very impressive document. All resume paper should be 8.5” X 11”; there are NO EXCEPTIONS to this rule. 8.5” X 11” is the size that filing units are built to contain, the size scanners are by default set to process, and the size common manila envelopes are made to contain, so it is highly inadvisable to print paper any smaller or larger. By taking into consideration all of the above guidelines, any job applicant can write a perfect resume sure to angelina jolie humanitarian work biography, be impressive to even the most critical of wedding traditions human resources managers.
Don’t want to go through the hassle of angelina jolie humanitarian biography creating your own resume? We encourage you to use our resume builder here, which will format your resume into one of our 8 battle tested templates, which have been proven to land more interviews. We also invite you to of, download those resume templates for free, and insert the bullet point yourself. If you’re having trouble coming up with bullet points, take inspiration from our numerous industry resume samples and writing tips. Additional Resume Aesthetic Resources. What a well written comprehensive piece! Thank you so very much!
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6 Punctuation Tips For A Sexier Resume. #1 Thing Recruiters Want You To Know About Getting A Job AppDynamics. How To Land A Job At Northside Hospital. Angelina Humanitarian Biography. 3 Tips For Getting A Job At Medidata Solutions. Bronfenbrenner's Macrosystem Consists. The Secret To Networking When You Don#039;t Have Any Time. Jolie. 3 Ways Emotionally Intelligent Leaders Make The Most Of Online Collaboration. You want a resume, cover letter, and LinkedIn profile that presents you in the best possible light. With all of the spirits death queen emphasis on loading your documents with keywords, accomplishments, and metrics that make the case for you being the perfect fit for work biography the position you’re after, have you overlooked proper punctuation?
Some might wonder what the of reflection big deal is angelina, about punctuation. Production Film. Surely if you start your sentences with a capital letter and end them with a period, that’s all you need to worry about, right? Unfortunately not. The text in career documents is often so packed with information that seemingly inconsequential punctuation missteps can distort your meaning, or worse: cause the reviewer to pause in angelina biography, confusion. That pause is death queen, bad news for angelina jolie biography you: it may make the reviewer see you as a less-than-attractive candidate, questioning your ability to communicate or pay attention to details, both highly valued skills in today’s workplace. Just as a modern spouse becomes more alluring to a partner by doing the dishes and laundry, using proper punctuation makes you downright sexy to a hiring manager. Both efforts make lives easier for the people who are important to you, so go the extra mile by following these important rules (and do the dishes): In addition to appearing at the beginning of bronfenbrenner's macrosystem, sentences and in section headings, capital letters also signify important words. Angelina Work. But using too many “important words” in your documents slows the reader down or seems pretentious. For example, I sometimes see text like this in resumes: “Expertise in Human Resources, Training, and Recruiting” Try: “Expertise in human resources, training, recruiting” instead. Other than proper names like your own name or the pakistani wedding traditions names of products, you will rarely need to capitalize words that don’t appear at the beginning of a line or sentence. You’ll also want to capitalize your own job title above each position listed on your resume.
However, if you reference someone else’s job title in your career documents, the general rule is humanitarian work, that it is only capitalized when the person#8217;s name follows (Vice President Joe Smith) not when merely referring to death, the position (as in “reporting to the vice president”). Of course, every rule tends to have its exceptions, and angelina jolie there are a few for capitalization. However, these are good to Essay Christianity, Tolerance, and Homosexuality, start with. Use hyphens for jolie humanitarian work compound adjectives that precede a noun, such as “client-focused approach” or “full-time employees.” And if you have two adjectives that modify the in jekyll and hyde same base word, use a hyphen after the humanitarian first, as in “mid- and senior-level management.” Do not use a hyphen in bronfenbrenner's consists, a compound adjective if the first word ends in –ly, as in “highly qualified candidate.” Semicolons can either separate two independent clauses when the second clause is not directly related to the first, or they can be useful when you want to list items that already include a comma. For example, “Proficient in software including Microsoft Excel, Word, and PowerPoint; CorelDRAW; and Adobe Photoshop.” Colons are used to angelina jolie biography, join two independent clauses when the second clause is directly related to the first. The most common usage in career documents is for lists, as in “Proficient in the following software: MS Excel, Word, and PowerPoint.” There’s fierce debate between those who advocate using serial commas (putting a comma before the final “and” in a series) and those who don’t. The best practice for resumes is to use serial commas, as they can really make your career documents easier to understand. Essay Christianity, Tolerance, And Homosexuality. This is especially true when you list series of items where two things may be grouped together (think: sales and marketing). But even sentence construction like “Facilitate mock interviews, identify position and tailor interview questions” may cause the reader to stumble. At first read, it may sound like the candidate is angelina jolie humanitarian work, responsible for identifying a position and identifying someone who tailors clothes! So my advice is to avoid ambiguity by always using serial commas in career documents.
The current convention is to use one space after a period, not two. Same goes for bronfenbrenner's consists colons. Angelina Jolie Work Biography. I know, I know. Production Manager. If you grew up learning to angelina jolie humanitarian work biography, type on an IBM Selectric, back in the stone ages like I did, this is a hard habit to break. Bronfenbrenner's Consists Of. But, if you keep using two spaces, you’ll look as antiquated as the typewriter.
Trust me, knowing these six punctuation tips will make you a real turn on to an employer. Now that you’ve reviewed some of the punctuation rules that you’ll want to humanitarian work, be aware of, I’ll share the most important rule of of reflection, all: however, you choose to use punctuation throughout your career documents, do it consistently! Even more jarring than not following proper punctuation rules is humanitarian work biography, following them only wedding some of the time. Of course, these rules may change depending on the document you may be writing. Angelina Humanitarian. Or, if you have a profession (like journalists do) that demands adherence to a specific style guide, like AP, Gregg, or Chicago#8230; Hot, I know. ;-) For a more in-depth look at consists, punctuation, I recommend checking out Susan Whitcomb’s book Resume Magic . It’s a great resource for every aspect of preparing your resume, and humanitarian work has a particularly good section on punctuation. And, if you’d like to see resumes with some real sex appeal, check out my samples on ProfessionDirection.com. This post was originally published on an earlier date.
Kristin S. Johnson is a TORI award-winning, 6-times certified resume writer, job search coach, and Tolerance, and Homosexuality social media consultant. Her approach is cutting-edge, creative, and kind. As owner of Profession Direction, LLC, she works with professionals and aspiring executives across the country. Biography. Disclosure: This post is sponsored by a CAREEREALISM-approved expert. You can learn more about Social expert posts here .
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Nov 17, 2017 Angelina jolie humanitarian work biography,
Essay: English language teachers’ perceptions of an activity to elicit beliefs. In this small-scale study six English teachers working at jolie humanitarian, a Turkish private middle school elicited their own teacher beliefs using an adapted version of a repertory grid as proposed by Donaghue (2003). The repertory grid was introduced and used in a session in film, which the jolie humanitarian work participants individually generated their constructs and compared them with another teacher. The participants were asked to write an in jekyll evaluation of the activity as an instrument to angelina humanitarian, elicit beliefs. Characters In Jekyll And Hyde. Furthermore a semi-structured interview was conducted which aimed to humanitarian work, detect the pakistani participant’s perceptions of the activity and to shed further light on the value of this instrument. Humanitarian. Conclusions about the applicability of the repertory grid technique and, in particular, the instrument used in this study in second language teacher education and characters in jekyll, teacher development are drawn. Key words: Teacher beliefs, ELT, Elicitation Technique, Teacher Education, Professional Development.
It is widely accepted that people’s beliefs have an impact on their behaviour. Thought and action are interactively related: ‘What people think, believe, and feel affects how they behave’ (Bandura, 1986, p. Angelina Jolie Biography. 25). Reviewing the consists of relevant literature, Gabillon (2012) has recently explicated the of nature foreign language teacher beliefs and their influence on teaching practice in a set of five dichotomies: (1) teacher beliefs are personal as they represent an individual understanding and interpretation of teaching practice and social, as the understanding and interpretation is shaped in work, a social and of reflection, cultural context; (2) teacher beliefs are practical and theoretical in a way that theoretical knowledge (e.g. teaching methods or learning theories) is interpreted and angelina jolie biography, modified in the light of practical knowledge (i.e. experienced knowledge) to fit it to teacher beliefs; (3) there are teacher beliefs that are implicit, i.e. unconscious and difficult to verbalise, and soccer spirits, those ones being explicit, i.e. teachers are able to verbalize them, to provide a rationale and to relate them to previous experience (professional or life experience); (4) teacher beliefs are dynamic, i.e. open to change; however, it is angelina jolie humanitarian work biography, uncontested that teacher beliefs are not easily changed and deep-rooted key beliefs or core beliefs might be resistant; (5) teacher beliefs are systematic, i.e. Bronfenbrenner's Macrosystem Consists. there are belief factors that are organised around themes rather systematically so that practice is linked to angelina jolie humanitarian, the belief system, while other belief factors are complex organised and indeed contain conflicting perceptions which cause a mismatch between beliefs and practice. Borg (2006; 2003) has coined the term teacher cognition referring to the ‘unobservable cognitive dimension of wedding traditions teaching ‘ what teachers know, believe and think’ (ibid, p. 81). As such, teacher cognition plays an angelina humanitarian work essential role in the practice of teaching and production, teacher education. It is angelina jolie work, shaped by schooling (the teacher’s experience gained when she was a pupil/student) and professional coursework (the teacher’s experience gained in teacher education programs). Furthermore, teacher cognition is in dependence to Essay, contextual factors (physical conditions, material, curriculum etc. faced in the institutional context the angelina jolie biography teacher is employed in), and own classroom practice (which shapes cognition unconsciously, or consciously through reflection). Teacher cognition stands in an interactional relation to Christianity, and Homosexuality, teacher learning and practice as it both informs them and is informed through them. It is important to uncover teachers’ beliefs in order to initiate reflection on own teaching and, consequently, to facilitate professional development. When teacher beliefs remain undetected or are ignored, teacher training and professional development programs are likely to be ineffective because input (e.g. new approaches or techniques) cannot be connected to existing teacher beliefs; consequently, new content is unlikely to be transferred into classroom practice (Freeman, 2002; V??lez-Rend??n, 2002). Uncovering beliefs and assumptions is, however, difficult since they might be subconscious or it might be challenging to jolie humanitarian, articulate them (Donaghue, 2003).
Furthermore teacher beliefs might consist of espoused theories which are in contrast to poe word of reflection, theories in action (Williams Burden, 1997). Among other instruments, the use of belief inventories (e.g. Richards Lockhart, 1996, pp. 48-51) or awareness raising activities (e.g. Taggart Wilson, 2005; Roberts, 1998; Wallace, 1991) have been suggested to explore teacher beliefs.
Donaghue (2003) has introduced an adapted version of the repertory grid technique to elicit teacher beliefs and assumptions (see Appendix A). Instead of using given constructs (as in angelina work biography, questionnaires), in repertory grids participants develop and pakistani wedding traditions, articulate their own, personal constructs. The instrument developed by Donaghue is loosely based on Kelly’s (1991) theory of angelina jolie humanitarian biography personal construct, according to pakistani wedding, which an individual makes sense of the world by work biography, generating constructs which shape an individual’s personal theory. Constructs are viewed as ‘dichotomous abstractions’ (ibid., p. 75), i.e. individuals perceive elements of their experience in such a way that they ‘never affirm anything without simultaneously denying something’ (Fransella, Bell Bannister, 2004, p.7). Death Queen. For example, an effective teacher might be considered as someone who motivates students, while an ineffective teacher might be considered to jolie biography, be teaching without motivating students (example taken from Roberts, 1998, p. 31).
Accordingly, in the repertory grid activity proposed by Donaghue (2003) the participants are asked to compare three different people and to pakistani, affirm a construct in which two persons are alike, and the third is different. The adapted version of the repertory grid was developed as an instrument to be used as an awareness-raising activity at jolie humanitarian, the beginning of courses in teacher training or professional development. It aims at informing participants about their (often covert) beliefs and assumptions about language teaching. Characters And Hyde. Differently from other repertory grids it does not contain a scale through which participants indicate how near a construct is related to an element. For this reason, conclusion from results of the instrument must be drawn with caution. It is rather ‘a catalyst to thought and reflection’ (Donaghue, 2003, p. 350) than a research tool to jolie humanitarian work, gain generalisable results. Macrosystem Of. Consequently, this study is concerned with the jolie applicability of the and Homosexuality instruments and not with the gained beliefs themselves.
The study sought to find out how the adapted repertory grid by jolie biography, Donaghue (2003) was perceived as an instrument to elicit teacher beliefs by six teachers at a Turkish middle school. For this reason, the participants were asked to evaluate the instrument and film, it was intended to find out to what dimensions of teacher cognition the participants related their own beliefs to. It was assumed that the participants’ comments might be understood as an indicator for evaluating in angelina humanitarian, how far the instrument is capable of initiating reflective thinking. No less importantly, the participants’ perceptions might contribute to developing the instrument. Following these considerations the study sought to answer the following questions:
1. How do the participants evaluate the elicitation technique used in this study? 2. And Homosexuality. How do the participants perceive the elicitation technique for their professional development? The participants in humanitarian, this study were six teachers at a private middle school in a southeastern city in Turkey. The pupils attending the school come from families belonging to in jekyll and hyde, the middle and upper middle class. In order to get some background information, the participants were asked to fill in repertory grid evaluation form (Appendix B), which requested besides an evaluation of the activity some biographical information. Background of the Participants in the Study. Participant Sex Age Qualification Teaching experience. 1 female 33 bachelor 11 years.
2 male 45 bachelor 17 years. 3 female 27 bachelor 4 years. 4 female 29 bachelor 7 years. 5 female 29 bachelor 4 years. 6 male 32 bachelor 6 years. Table 1 shows that all participants have a bachelor’s degree in ELT and work biography, vary in teaching experience as evidenced by the years of teaching. Participants 1, 3 and Essay Social, 5 have had exclusively worked at private schools while participant 4 had worked at a private teaching institution (dershane) for five years and jolie humanitarian work biography, participant 6 at a public school for film, three years before they started their current job at the private school.
Participant 2 is of Syrian nationality. He had worked at state schools abroad (e.g. Kuwait), and has been working at biography, the private school for Essay Christianity, Social, two years. Data Collection Procedures and Tools. The participants were invited to a session in which the activity was carried out. The activity procedure followed these steps (cf. Humanitarian Work Biography. Donaghue, 2003, p. 347f.): 1. Pakistani Traditions. The researcher introduces the jolie humanitarian biography aim of the macrosystem study and explains all steps. He also introduces the repertory grid activity and explains the angelina humanitarian work biography concept of personal constructs. 2. Participants are divided into pairs.
Each pair receives one set of cards containing the elements of the grid (cf. Appendix A). They think of a real person that matches the Essay Christianity, and Homosexuality element best. Participant A writes the name of the angelina humanitarian biography person at the top of the wedding traditions card, participant B writes it at the bottom. For confidentiality, the participants are allowed to write a pseudonym if the partner knows the person. An example is given in Figure 1. A teacher you learned well with. Figure 1. Card used in repertory grid activity (sample) 3. Cards are shuffled. Each participant is given a grid (Appendix A).
Pairs choose three cards at random, and angelina jolie humanitarian work, individually think how two persons are similar and one is different writing their personal constructs in the ‘construct’ column. Participants put a tick to film, the elements that are the jolie biography same and a cross to the one that is different. 4. Pairs compare their constructs and discuss. 5. Pairs return the cards, shuffle them and repeat steps 3 and 4 (Donaghue, 2003, suggests 6 turns). Repertory Grid Evaluation. At the end of the session, the participants were asked to evaluate the repertory grid by completing the Repertory Grid Evaluation Form (see Appendix B). Each participant was interviewed separately.
The aim of the semi-structured interview was to find out if the repertory grid activity had initiated a reflective process in each of the participants. For this purpose, the participants were invited to comment on their beliefs (see questions in Appendix C). The interviews were hold in English and audio-recorded. The interviews were then transcribed to prepare them for queen, the data analysis. During the repertory grid activity the jolie researcher took field notes in order to document how the characters in jekyll and hyde participants responded to the activity. Four types of data were collected during the study: the repertory grids, the field notes, the repertory grid evaluation and the transcription of the work semi-structured interview. The repertory grids were not analysed in order to detect the participants’ beliefs; it was not assumed that they were valid tools to research the spirits participants’ teacher beliefs (cf. the related remarks in the introduction of this paper).
The data gained from the other data collection tools were analysed through content analysis in order to answer the research questions. Work Biography. For this purpose, coding categories were established after initial coding (Saldana, 2009). The coding categories were attributed to six themes: repertory grid evaluation, schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors, classroom practice and suggestions. This section is and hyde, organised as follows: It starts with the participants’ general evaluation of the repertory grid activity using data both from the repertory grid evaluation form and jolie humanitarian work, the interview as there were overlaps in the data coming from both collection tools. Wedding. Then, it is reported how the jolie biography teachers related the activity to their learning experience (schooling and professional coursework) as well as past and current contexts and classroom practices. The participants’ views on poe word of reflection how to use the elicited beliefs and suggestions on how to develop the instrument conclude this section. How did the participants evaluate the repertory grid activity in angelina jolie work biography, general?
All the participants gave positive comments on the activity in the repertory grid evaluation form, and these perceptions were repeated and accentuated in spirits, the interviews. Angelina Jolie Humanitarian Biography. The evaluations can be summarised under three categories: its usefulness as an elicitation tool, its (potential) value as part of professional development, and its quality as an spirits queen enjoyable activity. The activity as an Elicitation Tool. The participants regarded the tool as a powerful instrument to elicit beliefs as the elicitation process is based on angelina humanitarian biography real people the participants are familiar with. Participant 1, for manager, example, stated that she was not aware of the importance of social skills for jolie humanitarian work biography, teaching before the characters in jekyll and hyde activity: I didn’t think about humanitarian biography, some of the qualities of my teachers, my colleagues (…) I didn’t think that my colleagues are cheerful persons or friendly persons. (…) For teaching being helpful, being kind to pakistani wedding traditions, the students, listening to them carefully [are important] (Interview, participant 1). Two participants emphasised that that the procedure helped them to formulate honest answers; a teacher noted: I felt that I was giving away my experiences about my job (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 6). Two participants pointed to the part during the activity when the teachers shared their constructs with a partner. They recognised sharing beliefs as a central point of the activity as the following excerpt from the interview illustrates:
I learned much from the activity because one of my colleagues wrote interesting constructs and by the way I learned them and I think this activity is something like a psychological test, but not individual-psychological, it’s just prepared for the profession and our experiences (Interview, participant 6). While the responses in the previous paragraph indicate the usefulness of the angelina humanitarian activity as an elicitation tool, the activity was also perceived as incentive to reflection, i.e. Consists Of. it was perceived as going beyond a mere verbalisation of beliefs and, thus, as potentially contributing to professional development: You think, you remember and you evaluate yourself and jolie work, the other person (Interview, participant 3). Since the elicitation of and Homosexuality constructs is combined with comparison of three teachers (the elements), the activity forced the biography participants to challenge ideas. Participant 2 illustrates this by discussing a personality trait that is negatively connoted, but in fact might be valuable as a quality of a teacher: In my point of view I think I have to soccer death queen, think again and again of jolie so many things; for example one of the characteristics of the teacher I ticked ‘ a strict teacher, for example, I learned a lot from a strict teacher in poe word, the past; he never laughed, but really I loved him very much, although he was not so friendly with the students, but as a teacher he was a good teacher. So, sometimes like parents, I think there doesn’t have to be laughing all the time with the kids in order to angelina jolie work, teach them. Bronfenbrenner's Macrosystem Consists. Sometimes we have to be strict a little bit. Of course, we have to be patient, kind, friendly and so on. But some of the characteristics we will consider as bad characteristics, they are very useful for jolie work, us teachers (Interview, participant 2).
Participant 1 pointed to a further advantage of the activity: She said that she had difficulties to bronfenbrenner's macrosystem consists of, criticise other people or to be criticised. As the activity helped her to find own weaknesses, she concluded that it might be suitable for people having problems with criticism. Two participants perceived the activity as enjoyable, as expressed in this excerpt: Also it was enjoyable because it made me think of the past and sometimes I laughed at those days (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 1). The enjoyment the angelina jolie humanitarian work biography participants found can be confirmed by the researcher’s observations of the macrosystem of teachers’ active participation in the activity and the willingness to elaborate on their constructs in the interviews; the following comment indicates that the feeling of enjoyment was linked to the perception of contributing to professional development: It was enjoyable. I liked being a participant in such an activity. I want to make another one, not just repertory grid, another scientific one.
I want to be a participant for my profession (Interview, participant 6). What did the participants relate their beliefs to? A major aim of the interview was to find out to what areas in their past experience and/or current situation the participants would relate their beliefs to. It was assumed that areas mentioned by the participants would match those in the framework suggested by Borg (2003, p. 82), who sees teacher beliefs (as a subcategory in the all-embracing notion of teacher cognition) generated through schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors and classroom practice. The second question of the interview asked for the sources of the beliefs, but did not direct the participants to any of the areas teacher cognitions are located in. Table 2 displays to what areas the participants attributed their beliefs of their own accord. Participant’s Initial Attribution of Beliefs to Areas. participant area mentioned initially. 1 professional coursework.
2 contextual factors. 3 contextual factors. 5 contextual factors. 6 professional coursework. Table 2 shows that different teachers came up with different references for their beliefs when asked initially. This does not mean that there were not any other sources for their beliefs, but those ones were asked directly in the course of the interview; it can be assumed that particularly contextual factors mentioned by participants 2, 3 and 5 were foregrounded for angelina humanitarian biography, these teachers as they focused on them extensively during the interview. The participants’ perceptions are reported in macrosystem consists, more detail in the following sections.
Schooling was mentioned by using a concrete example by participant 4, who said that her belief that teachers should be friendly was generated by her 7th grade English teacher who made her like learning English. She also talked about angelina jolie humanitarian, one of her teachers who the pupils made fun of bronfenbrenner's of because of her glasses. The participant concluded that physical appearance played a role in teaching. Two participants argued that the view of schooling experience had been changed as they now appreciated teacher practice (observed in their teachers in work biography, childhood) they had not appreciated when they were children. These responses suggest that schooling experience can be modified through teaching experience; in a way, the teachers critically reflected their own beliefs they had when they were younger. Even though mentioned, professional coursework was not highlighted in the interviews; on enquiry, the participants did not deny an influence of teacher education on manager film their beliefs but they did not exemplify it, for example by referring to jolie, their constructs in the repertory grid. Participant 4 mentioned the name of one of her academic teachers at poe word of reflection, university who. taught a lot of things, he taught me to teach, he taught me how to behave towards the students. We learned by living, by acting (Interview, participant 3). This response, particularly the last sentence, indicates the angelina jolie humanitarian biography importance of not only content but also of method in teacher education.
In the interviews, contextual factors were most prominently elaborated on. The participants claimed that their beliefs and assumptions were shaped by queen, cultural norms and their immediate environment (parents, friends, colleagues), and that the context of private school had an influence on teacher behaviour and, consequently, teaching practice. Two participants addressed the impact of culture; in their explanations they did not only refer to the teacher profession. The following excerpt summarises the responses: I think our beliefs come from our experiences, this is biography, one of the sources ‘ one of them is our home. That is very important: How did our parents teach us in the past? The morals, the ethics and something like that; one source is our experience in life in general; one of them is our culture.
For example, we are Muslims, our culture is different from that of others, from Jews or Christians or other people; one of them comes from our close friends ‘ the poe word of reflection people we love. Sometimes we find good beliefs we didn’t believe in the past (Interview, participant 2). The excerpt illustrates that the emergence of teacher beliefs is perceived as not restricted to the immediate school context. Virtually all areas of life can contribute to professional beliefs. A further contextual factor mentioned by the participants was the context of private school which was contrasted with public schools. Angelina Jolie. Participant 5 said that state school teachers were sometimes ineffective, and she linked her belief to bronfenbrenner's consists, a variety of conditions. According to her, public school teachers do not care about their students’ success as they rather transmit knowledge, i.e. grammar, than teaching the four language skills; they are not supervised by principals and parents do not come to school and ask about their children’s progress; additionally, public school teachers are ‘relaxed’ as concerns salary, which contributed to angelina jolie work, their attitude of soccer queen indifference towards their profession. In a similar vein participant 3 pointed to the reduced amount of class hours and restricted use of material in public schools on the one hand and the willingness of private school students to jolie humanitarian biography, learn English on wedding traditions the other hand. Participant 1 said that she tried to do her best because she worked at biography, a private school. What all these voices have in common is the conviction that contextual factors influence teacher beliefs and soccer, it can be concluded that beliefs generated through contextual factors affect teaching practice.
Similar as for schooling and professional coursework, the participants did not come up with concrete examples how their beliefs interacted with their own classroom practice. From a general perspective, participant 1 (a rather experienced teacher) described classroom practice as having an ongoing impact on beliefs and angelina biography, assumptions and consequently on characters and hyde teaching practice. She claimed she adapted her beliefs as a response to change in student behaviour: I change my ideas because every generation is different (…) I have to angelina jolie, change my style, my ideas, my behaviour almost every year. So I have to be careful about everything during the lesson, after lesson and before lesson. So, they change my ideas, I can say day by day (Interview, participant 1). What suggestions did the participants make on Christianity, Social how to use the elicited beliefs and to develop the activity? The participants did not come up with ideas on how to use the elicited beliefs in a separate follow-up activity; however, they stated that this activity would help them as a reminder of what to do and how to behave in the teacher profession.
The participants mainly saw the activity as a starter to reflect and to angelina humanitarian work, challenge own teacher beliefs. Some of the suggestions to develop the activity in the next section can also be understood as follow-up activities to be carried out in the session. Participant 1 suggested adding a task in which the participants summarise their strengths and bronfenbrenner's macrosystem of, weaknesses after the activity in a sentence. Angelina Humanitarian Work Biography. As mentioned above she perceived herself as a person that has difficulties in criticising and being criticised, and she linked her suggestion to that perception. She also suggested applying an instrument to elicit learner beliefs to get the view from the other side of the film classroom. Similarly, participant 4 suggested finding out angelina jolie humanitarian work biography about beliefs of public school teachers and even people from other than school contexts to get outsider views. To elicit beliefs of teachers coming from different contexts was also suggested by participant 3 who held strong beliefs that the contextual factors at public school had the potential to ‘produce’ ineffective teachers. Participant 2 reflected how outcomes of the activity could be utilised in the classroom:
Maybe we could add something to of reflection, it [the activity], for example how to make your students better, how to make them better students every day (…). You can improve yourself, but you also have to think of the other part, I mean the students. How can we attract our students more? Sometimes some teachers are excellent teachers, but unfortunately they cannot attract the attention of all of their students, so maybe the suggestions of the colleagues can help us to do this (Interview, participant 2). Obviously, he referred to the part of the activity in which the humanitarian biography partners share their beliefs. His comment indicates the need to work with the beliefs, not only by confirming or questioning them but also by transforming reflection on teacher beliefs into instructional practice.
As regards the procedure, participant 6 suggested carrying out the activity not in written form by of reflection, writing down constructs and putting ticks and crosses, but orally as interviews. That means teachers research their colleagues’ beliefs and elicit beliefs in dialogic form, and angelina humanitarian biography, write their constructs afterwards. Pakistani Wedding Traditions. This suggestion is remarkable as the participant recognised the repertory grid technique as a form of interview (cf. Jolie Humanitarian Biography. Fransella et al, 2004, p. 5: ‘The grid is perhaps best regarded as a particular form of poe word of reflection structured interview’). So far the participants’ perceptions of the repertory grid have been reported. In the following section, conclusions are drawn and angelina biography, implications for poe word of reflection, second language teacher education are discussed. This study was carried out to explore the humanitarian work elicitation process six middle school teachers at a Turkish private school went through.
The participants evaluated the elicitation tool and reflected on their beliefs and bronfenbrenner's, the elicitation process. The elicitation tool, which was an jolie humanitarian biography adapted version of the wedding repertory grid, was positively evaluated as the humanitarian work participants perceived it as capable of Tolerance, and Homosexuality eliciting beliefs and acting as incentive to reflection about angelina jolie work, own beliefs. This is in line with the participant feedback reported in the study by characters, Donaghue (2003). It qualifies the instrument for angelina jolie, further application, e.g. in pre-service or in-service. The fact that the activity was perceived as enjoyable is of particular relevance as the willingness of teachers to macrosystem of, participate in angelina jolie humanitarian work, professional development is not a matter of course (Karaaslan, 2003). It was seen that the manager film participants in this study gave a variety of explanations and jolie humanitarian biography, references while they were talking about the spirits death queen activity and jolie work, their beliefs. However, some participants had more to say than others and different participants focused on different issues. Spirits. This is angelina jolie work biography, not surprising when the ‘inconsistency’ of teacher beliefs as a personal construct (that is e.g. strongly linked to an experienced anecdote or mentally presented as an production film abstract idea) is taken under consideration, and it is also not surprising that, independently from each other, participants related their beliefs to the same issues (e.g. culture or private school context) as beliefs do not emerge in a void but in a context that teachers share (Pajares, 1992; Gabillon, 2012). Donaghue (2003) addresses the question of what to do with the elicited beliefs as a crucial point.
She reports that a trainer in her study had the participants sort the constructs into humanitarian, positive and poe word of reflection, negative ones. One of the participants in humanitarian work, the current study suggested writing in poe word, a sentence what own strengths and angelina, weaknesses emerged from the activity. From my own considerations, which however emerged not before the data analysis, participants could classify beliefs and label the emerging categories (labels might be ‘interpersonal traits’, ‘classroom management’, ‘approaches’. These labels, or themes, then, can be operationalised in a following course to trace changes in constructs under a theme or, for instance, in order to research in how far beliefs match teaching practices (cf. Farell Bennis, 2013, who summarise statement beliefs under themes). From my personal experience I have gained in this study, I believe it is inevitable to wedding traditions, contrast the beliefs with what research has to say about them.
There has been an ongoing discussion on to what extent second language teacher education should provide a theoretical knowledge basis and to what extent it should be guided by reflective practice (Thompson Pascal, 2013; Lawes, 2003; Day, 1993). In fact, reflective practice is necessary to make theoretical knowledge accessible and theoretical knowledge is necessary to evaluate practical reflection. The instrument dealt with in this study can contribute to bring reflection and theory together. Bandura, A. Jolie Biography. (1986). Social foundations of Essay Christianity, Tolerance, and Homosexuality thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of angelina jolie work research on what language teachers think, know, believe and bronfenbrenner's macrosystem consists, do.
Language Teaching 36(2), 81-109. Borg, S. (2006). Teacher cognition and language education. Research and practice. London: Continuum. Day, R. Jolie Humanitarian Work Biography. (1993).
Models and production film, the knowledge base of second language teacher education. University of Hawaii’s Working Papers in ESL, 11(2), 1’13. Donaghue, H. (2003). An instrument to angelina jolie work biography, elicit teachers’ beliefs and wedding, assumptions. Angelina Jolie Work. ELT Journal 57(4), 344-351.
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Training foreign language teachers. A reflective approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. William, M., Burden, R.L. (1997). Angelina Jolie Work. Psychology for language teachers: a social constructivist approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Appendix A: Repertory Grid. Construct A colleague you consider a good teacher A colleague you consider ineffective A teacher you learned well with A teacher you didn’t learn well with Your present self as a teacher Your ideal self as a teacher.
Appendix B: Repertory Grid Evaluation. Repertory Grid Evaluation. The aim of this study is to have you evaluate a tool to elicit your beliefs and assumptions. Please fill in the requested information. Production Manager. Your responses and biographical information will remain anonymous and they will be used for this research only. Thank you for your cooperation. Academic qualification: ….. Bachelor’s degree ….. Master’s degree. ….. Doctorate degree Other; please specify.
Number of angelina humanitarian work biography years of teaching experience: ….. Pakistani Wedding. years. Number of years teaching at private/state school: ….. years. Please evaluate the repertory grid activity by answering this question: What do you think of this activity’? Appendix C: Semi-structured interview. 1. Did this activity help you uncover and reflect on your attitude and jolie humanitarian biography, beliefs about teaching? 2. Do you have an idea where your beliefs come from?/What are the wedding sources for your beliefs? 2.1.
Can you identify beliefs coming from your own experience as a pupil/student? 2.2. Jolie Humanitarian Biography. Can you identify beliefs coming from production manager, your teacher education? 2.3. Work Biography. Can you identify beliefs coming from your own classroom experience? 2.4. Can you identify beliefs coming from your experience as a teacher at (name of the school)? 3. What do we do with the constructs after they have been elicited? (Explanation: The activity was originally developed to manager, elicit teacher beliefs at the beginning of a development course)
4. Do you have any suggestions on how the activity could be changed or modified? Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Education work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Education essay was submitted to us by a student in order to angelina jolie humanitarian work biography, help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: English language teachers’ perceptions of an activity to elicit beliefs . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/education/essay-english-language-teachers-perceptions-of-an-activity-to-elicit-beliefs/ [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:
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