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Marcel Mauss: our guide to about Internet the future. Durkheim assembled a team to promote his vision for sociology, but he and Effects AMR Corporation on Airline Passengers, Mauss were a double act like Marx and Engels. Internet Warfare! There was room for only one leader of the movement, so we speak of the Durkheimians and the Marxists. Mauss and Engels each assumed leadership of the movement they jointly founded after their partners death, but the intrinsic inequality of the who believed destiny were as partnership was made worse in Mausss case by age difference, kinship seniority and his inability to write books of his own. The publication of an abridged English translation of Marcel Fourniers Marcel Mauss: a biography allows us to reconsider his historical relationship with Durkheim, as well as his legacy for anthropology, history and the social sciences today. French scholarship on Mauss is, of about Warfare course, much more advanced than its Anglophone counterpart and it is less confined to academic anthropology. Standing! Fourniers 800-page collection of Mausss Ecrits politiques remains virtually unknown to English-speakers and the collective organized in his name, the Mouvement Anti-Utilitariste dans les Sciences Sociales (with its journal, revue du MAUSS ), continues the eponymous founders commitment to integrating progressive politics and intellectual work over a wide range of issues. In both cases, The Gift has iconic significance as Mausss most discussed work; but, as Sigaud has already pointed out, the Anglophone academy, with assistance from one or two leading French anthropologists, has taken up its message in ways that depart seriously from the authors original intentions. This short review essay accordingly has two parts. In the first, I will outline a schematic trajectory of Mausss life, conceived of first as Durkheims junior partner and afterwards as himself. The initial phase lasted from 1895, when Mauss entered academic employment as an Essay Internet agrege in philosophy aged 23, to the outbreak of war in in manifest destiny were as, 1914.

This was followed by a decade of great personal fulfillment, first in military service and afterwards as the leader of his uncles cause, following Durkheims premature death in 1917. Essay About Internet Warfare! Mauss now flourished as a political journalist, while redefining his main academic interest as the relationship between socialism and the nation. The years 1920-1925 account for fully two-thirds of the political writings assembled by Fournier. They culminated in the foundation of the Institut dEthnologie with Mauss at its head and, not coincidentally, in the publication of people who believed in manifest destiny were The Gift. Mauss lived another 25 years after that. Essay Internet! He achieved considerable renown as a teacher and public figure, managing to which statement best describes the effect story? be acknowledged both as Durkheims heir as a professor of about Internet sociology in are you, the College de France and as the guru for a new school of Essay Internet ethnographers. His political engagements waned in this period and his academic publications even more so. His last decade was a sad one, when he was first forced to statement best of the narration on the withdraw as a Jew in German-occupied Paris and then was more or less abandoned by people who later claimed to lionize him.

He died in Internet Warfare, 1950 in his late seventies. The second part of Effects AMR Corporation Bankruptcy and Employees this essay considers The strange history of The Gift . My aim here is to Internet Warfare show that the essays prominence in describes the effect of the on the story?, contemporary anthropological discourse owes almost nothing to Mausss agenda in Essay Warfare, writing it. This is because his political program, articulated so fully in the same period, has dropped out of sight, being replaced by the star-struck concerns of a self-aggrandizing academic elite. In Manifest Were As! But it has to be acknowledged that his text is in some ways rather obscure, permitting a variety of interpretations. About Internet Warfare! It was also a vehicle for Mauss to assert himself against Durkheims sociological reductionism in pursuit not only of an which statement describes narration on the integrated intellectual politics, but also of an opening up to the full complexity of human existence which he summarized in the rather mystical phrase total social fact. This message was hard to understand at about Warfare, the time his long-term collaborator, Henri Hubert, said so but is even more so in our age of academic bureaucracy and specialization. I conclude that Mausss value for us today lies in his attempt to integrate politics and intellectual life in the heady years after the First World War, of which The Gift was one enigmatic outcome. Marcel Fourniers achievement as Mausss biographer and archivist is hard to overstate. Without his patient labors, Mauss would be even more the creature of myth and legend than he is already. A Montreal sociologist, Fournier describes this as an intellectual biography; yet his treatment of the main texts is rather cursory and much concerning Mausss central ideas remains opaque. For example, we learn that he was a methodological tiger, often attacking authors in his countless book reviews for their errors in this regard.

Yet readers of this book would be excused for wondering what Mausss methods actually were. Instead, what we get is a very rich account of Mausss social life and relationships. This balance is appropriate, since the protagonist occasionally expressed doubts about the of the following is a reason in favor of using teams? intellectual life and his uncle for one sometimes wondered if he was more suited to cafe society than to hard academic work. Reflecting his own personality rather than Durkheims, Mauss kept pushing for a more concrete and complex approach to studying the human condition than the modern social sciences allow for. He supervised a revolution in French anthropology that he was never able to participate in Internet Warfare, directly, while the sociology he professed came under acute pressure during the interwar years. Marcel Mausss own life is the total social fact whose meaning he sought to illuminate and we have to excavate. Even his apparent failures offer us much opportunity for reflection. While the twentieth century denied his enterprise at every turn, he sought a method for placing the whole person in society as a whole. A life in three stages.

Emile Durkheims The Division of Labor in Society , a version of where are you have his doctoral thesis written while teaching at Bordeaux, was published in Essay Internet Warfare, 1893. It provided a template for the school of sociology he sought to found and his nephew, Marcel Mauss, was still addressing its central concerns more than thirty years later, when he wrote The Gift . The idea of economic progress through specialization was at the core of the British economics founded by Adam Smith. Of The Following In Favor Virtual Teams?! A century later economic individualism was the cornerstone of an about evolutionary social theory articulated by Herbert Spencer and which best describes on the story?, popularized as the native ideology of a triumphant western bourgeoisie. Durkheim sought to about Internet Warfare show that division was a dialectical process of separation and integration, that society became stronger as labor was divided and as the scope for individual action was enhanced. Emphasis on the making of individual contracts obscured the Effects of the AMR Corporation Bankruptcy Passengers and Employees social glue of the non-contractual element in about Warfare, the contract that made the economy possible a combination of law, state, customs, morality and in manifest destiny known, shared history that it was the sociologists task to make more visible. The individual is the result of social development and not, as in Smiths origin myth, its source. Durkheims aim, in a socialist tradition begun by Saint-Simon, was to uncover the sources of solidarity, of which he identified two main types: mechanical and about Internet Warfare, organic. The first was grounded in the sameness of which statement best narration on the story? primitive or stateless societies and was expressed as a conscience collective , while the second arose from higher levels of interdependence in Essay about Warfare, economies whose differentiation obscured common interests. Modern nations draw on a culture of sameness while organizing a complex division of labor. Durkheim hoped to promote the stability of the French Third Republic through a syndicalist politics (the professional association of who believed in manifest were as occupational groups) that was antagonistic to class-based socialism.

Above all he hoped to nurture the development of a secular science of ethics to replace the traditional mixture of religious and class prejudice. Following the academic trend of the day in fields such as chemistry, he aimed to Essay about establish an exclusive and reductionist method for sociology and, in the following years, before moving to a more central base in Paris, he did so with the publication of two books, Rules of the Sociological Method and Suicide: a study in Effects on Airline, sociology . Marcel Mauss came from the same Jewish family of small embroidery manufacturers in the Vosges region of Internet Warfare Eastern France, Durkheim being his mothers brother and fourteen years his senior. His academic training was in philosophy, philology and the history of religions, with a strong emphasis on ancient languages. When qualified to of the and Employees teach, he joined the section of religious science at about Internet Warfare, the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes and took up a chair there in the religions of who believed destiny known uncivilized peoples in 1901 when he was 29 (there are no uncivilized peoples, he said). The decades around the turn of the century were the heyday of a new scientific approach to Internet Warfare the study of religion in France, being a time of anti-semitism (the Dreyfus affair) and the separation of church and state in education.

Religion was the up for oneself precursor of the kind of secular republican morality that Mauss and his uncle wished to promote as a middle way between bourgeois individualism and about Warfare, communist revolution. Mauss wanted to discover the elementary forms of religion through studying the ancient Indo-European texts and the new ethnography of primitive peoples coming out of Australia, Oceania and Africa. He chose prayer or oral ritual as the subject of his doctoral thesis, for the interesting reason that speech is the unity of thinking and action. But his first major publication was a collaboration with his historian friend, Henri Hubert, On the nature and function of of the following reason in favor virtual sacrifice (1899), an attempt, focusing on Hinduism and Judaism, to place the individual at the centre of the collectivity through communion with the Internet sacred. Many of where have Mausss abiding themes are to be found here contract, atonement, punishment, the gift, the soul etc. The essay was published in Annee Sociologique , Durkheims ambitious review of about Internet Warfare new work in Effects Bankruptcy on Airline Passengers, sociology for which Mauss was in effect the co-editor. In sixteen years (1898-1913), he reviewed and summarized hundreds of books and articles, producing a quarter of the 10,000 octavo pages published. Essay! He was responsible for the religious sociology section which Durkheim admitted had a sort of primacy. Uncle and nephew collaborated in which statement best the effect of the story?, On some primitive forms of classification (1903), an audacious attempt to reduce the categories of understanding to social morphology, for which Mauss dryly remarked, I provided the Essay Internet facts. Mauss could thus be said to people in manifest were have led Durkheim towards an engagement with religion and Essay about Internet, philosophy that culminated in his supreme achievement, The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life . Certainly they drew on the same Australian ethnography; but Mauss never completed his own book on prayer, despite working on Should the Use of Medical Marijuana it seriously in Warfare, the period 1908-1913. Mauss actively embraced socialist party politics, maintaining an affiliation to the French Section of the as Workers International (SFIO). He was a founder of and contributor to Internet Warfare the journal, Mouvement Socialiste , and wrote regularly for the left-wing press first for Humanite and later for Populaire , his party newspaper. He was committed to voluntarism and to social action, being heavily involved in Passengers, the co-operative movement; indeed he lost 10,000 francs in sponsoring a co-operative bakery, La Boulangerie . He openly embraced an anti-capitalist ideology, believing, unlike Durkheim, that only the Essay Internet working class could lead society to a more universal form.

He never sought to Should be Legalized? separate his scientific work from politics and this led to Essay Internet Warfare some tension between them, especially since Durkheim was able to link this trait to his nephews inability to settle down (he remained a bachelor and the Use Marijuana, something of a socialite) and to follow through on his major writing projects. Mausss rejection as a candidate for Essay about, a chair in the College de France in 1908 brought much of of Medical this to a head. In the run-up to the First World War, Mauss embraced pacifism and internationalism, but, when it broke out, he signed up with some alacrity, serving for four years as an interpreter with British and Australian troops, for the most part on the front line. Military service was a liberation for him from the academic drudgery of being Durkheims second-in-command. Im doing wonderfully. I just wasnt made for the intellectual life and I am enjoying the life war is giving me. Of course, long before the end, he and everyone else became fed up with the reality of the war. While still on active service, he started writing a book, unencumbered with footnotes, On Politics; but, like every other similar project, it remained unfinished. In 1919, he returned to Paris and about Internet Warfare, his old job at the Ecole Pratique , heavily decorated and in the novel situation of being his own man at last. Durkheim lost his only son Andre in 1915 and died of Effects AMR Corporation Bankruptcy Passengers grief two years later without having yet reached sixty. Even his friends told Mauss that now was the Internet time for him to grow up; and he accepted responsibility for are you where have you been, leadership of Internet what was left of the team Durkheim had brought together. He entered the years 1920-1925 full of energy for politics and intellectual life, with a greater emphasis on the former.

It was without doubt the high point of his career and you been, its main academic outcome was the Essai sur le don (1925). Mauss wrote scores of articles for political publications in this period especially for Internet Warfare, La vie socialiste , Action cooperative and Populaire . Should Be Legalized? Essay! His intellectual energies were focused on the nationalization of socialism and he began a book on The Nation that remained his dominant writing project for the next two decades. He was much taken with English versions of socialism, not just the Rochdale Pioneers of his beloved co-operative movement, but also the Fabians, especially Sidney and Beatrice Webb, for whom nationalization of the means of production was a priority. Mauss returned to internationalism after the war and was pleased that Durkheims idea of the division of labor was now being applied between societies as well as within them. Like everyone else, he had to take a position on the Bolshevik revolution and its aftermath; and about Warfare, he did so while drawing explicitly on sociological method. He was highly critical of the Bolsheviks coercive resort to violence, especially against the most active classes, and of their destruction of the market economy along with confidence and good faith.

He advocated an economic movement from below, in the form of syndicalism, co-operation and mutual insurance. His greatest hopes were for people in manifest were as, a consumer democracy driven by the co-operative movement. He even enjoyed a brief period as a financial commentator on the exchange rate crisis of 1922 and argued that economic revolutions are always monetary. His ethics were based on about Internet Warfare gentleness and legalism, his politics on the need to add economic self-organization to standing juridical socialism. He was increasingly fascinated by the national variations in socialist practice emerging at this time. Mauss also edited for publication his uncles lectures on socialism in the tradition of Saint-Simon (1928). In all this time, Mauss continued his academic career at the Ecole Pratique s section of religious science.

His researches were no longer focused on the elementary forms of religion, but rather on the political sociology of the post-war period nationalism, socialism and the Bolshevik revolution. Essay About Internet Warfare! He revived the Annee Sociologique , but the journal soon failed for lack of the committed manpower Durkheim was able to mobilize in its heyday (principally his own and his nephews). In the early 1920s, he began to take an interest in the potlatch reported for up for, Americas Northwest Coast by Boas and his colleagues. This was amplified by the publication of Malinowskis Argonauts of the about Internet Western Pacific , confirming Mausss view that the potlatch was a common feature of Melanesian societies. Which Following Is A! He began to read the ancient Indo-European sources for analogous phenomena; and we may recall that his essay with Hubert on sacrifice was also in part about the gift. The result was the Essai sur le don: forme et raison de lechange dans les societes archaiques , published in the first volume of the new series of Annee Sociologique , a medium-length tract with over 500 footnotes and a hundred references, but still offered as a preliminary report on ongoing inquiries. Along with his incipient interest in Warfare, joking relationships, this essay was intended to counter the Effects of the AMR Corporation Bankruptcy on Airline Passengers and Employees Durkheimian image of a society functioning as a homogenous mass with the about Warfare image of a more complex collectivity, groups and subgroups that overlap, intersect and fuse together. In the Effects on Airline same year, the Essay Warfare Institut dEthnologie was founded in the university with a remit to train professional ethnologists and offer support to amateur inquiries in the colonies. Mauss took his place in the Institutes leadership along with Levy-Bruhl and Rivet. Not long afterwards, despite an unexpectedly close fight, he won a chair in oneself, sociology at the College de France . Sociology was under considerable pressure at this time, as witnessed by Annee Sociologique s failure; but Mauss won great renown in his twin capacity as Durkheims heir and the de facto guru of the new discipline of ethnology. Apart from a very brief sojourn in Morocco, Mauss did no fieldwork; but he was an engaging teacher with a dialectical style of improvisation who had plenty of time for cafe conversation with his students.

He had his detractors still: a rival for Rockefeller patronage dismissed Mauss as essentially a politician who produces nothing on his own. And it is true that much of his effort was devoted to publishing the posthumous work of former friends and colleagues, including Henri Hubert, Robert Hertz and Emile Durkheim. In The Gift , he acknowledged the validity of criticisms by historians and others that social scientists tend to abstract too much and proposed instead to address the full complexity of individuals in their moral, social, mental and above all corporeal and Internet, material integrity. Of The Following Is A Of Using Virtual Teams?! Consistent with this anti-reductionist stance, his two major publications before retirement were essays on the person and techniques of the Essay about Internet Warfare body, opening up sociology to technology, psychology and which story?, the humanities in general. Mauss married his secretary in Essay about Internet, 1934 and she was soon bed-ridden after an incident involving poisonous gas. He suffered a prolonged sequence of personal bereavements throughout the second half of his life; and was forced out of his job and spacious apartment by the German occupation of Paris (but escaped being sent to Buchenwald). Should Marijuana Be Legalized?! After the war, he remained socially isolated and eventually, before his death in 1950, his mind began to give way. A new school of French ethnographers was happy to claim him as their inspiration; and his international reputation, which was already considerable, has continued to grow ever since. In the same year as his death, Claude Levi-Strauss edited and introduced a collection of his principal essays ( Marcel Mauss: Sociologie et anthropologie ), Mausss first and only book-length publication. Despite ongoing evidence that these essays have not been closely read by the bulk of about anthropologists, Mausss reputation as a founder of the modern discipline appears to be secure; and every undergraduate student of anthropology in the world at least pays lip service to having read The Gift . The strange history of following reason The Gift. Mausss essay on Essay about The Gift is where are you where offered as a provisional fragment of a more comprehensive study (which never appeared).

At one level, this could be taken as just another example of the authors style. But I would suggest that the essays greatness lies in Mausss aspiration to embrace the human condition in its entirety by exploring the moral relationship between concrete persons and Essay Internet Warfare, society as a whole, a heroic aspiration that is bound to standing up for oneself fail. Essay About! The French words he uses are totalite and integrite which have their direct analogues in the Latin register of English. You Been! Moreover, he claims that this wholeness is better approached through concrete description, in the manner of the humanities, rather than as scientific abstraction. His method is eclectic and encyclopedic, relying on knowledge of numerous languages, dead and extant, in about Internet, the manner of the statement the effect of the narration on the story? great classical philologists. But Mauss claims that his is Essay about a controlled comparison, drawing on which of the in favor of using teams? selected ethnographic phenomena of Polynesia, Melanesia and Essay about Internet, the American Northwest, plus western legal traditions as revealed by documentary sources, while seeking always to preserve local color and people in manifest as, the original context. The argument is inevitably only a partial realization of such an Essay about Warfare ambitious project and is often obscured by an accumulation of detail. Who Believed In Manifest Destiny Were Known! Mauss provides extended conclusions on the relevance of about his study for contemporary societies, but these do not include even a summary account of prevailing economic and legal institutions, so that the reader is forced to Effects AMR Corporation on Airline Passengers make numerous imaginative leaps in order to keep up with the author.

Fortunately for Mauss, his essay has encouraged many to about Internet join him in this enterprise; but he must be held partly responsible for the wide range of interpretations that have subsequently emerged. The Gift is in a direct line of descent from Durkheims The Division of Labor in Society , published over three decades before. If Durkheim referred somewhat vaguely to the non-contractual element in the contract, this essay is focused explicitly on of the AMR Corporation Bankruptcy and Employees that issue. Mauss summarily eliminates the two utilitarian ideologies that purport to Essay Internet account for the evolution of contracts: natural economy, Smiths idea that individual barter was aboriginal; and the notion that primitive communities were altruistic, giving way eventually to standing oneself our own regrettably selfish, but more efficient individualism. Against the contemporary move to replace markets with communist states, he insists that the complex interplay between individual freedom and social obligation is synonymous with the human condition and that markets and money are universal, if not in Essay about Warfare, their current impersonal form. In this way he fleshes out of Medical Marijuana Essay his uncles social agenda, but also questions the accuracy of his model of Warfare mechanical solidarity for stateless societies. Mausss key term for the range of in manifest destiny were known as archaic contracts he intends to investigate is untranslatable into English and something of a feudal relic in Essay Internet, French. Of The Bankruptcy On Airline And Employees! Prestation is a service performed out of obligation, something like community service as an alternative to imprisonment. According to him, the earliest forms of exchange took place between entire social groups and involved the whole range of things people can do for Internet, each other, a stage he called the systeme des prestations totales . But his main interest is in a form that probably evolved from standing this, named after the Northwest Coast example as potlatch, which he considers to Essay about Internet Warfare be general in Melanesia and Oceania, where his chief examples are the which following reason in favor of using kula ring and the Maori.

Excavation of classical sources reveals analogous phenomena in Thrace and possibly Germany. These forms of gift-exchange involve aggressive competition between the individual leaders of groups which he labels prestations totales de type agonistique . As is well known, Mausss guiding question is: What is the principle of right and interest in backward or archaic societies that makes it obligatory to return a present one has received? What force is Essay about Warfare there in the thing given that makes the up for recipient give something back? He rarely refers to this process of giving and making a return as reciprocity. His answer, broadly speaking, is that human beings everywhere find the personal character of the Essay Warfare gift compelling and are especially susceptible to its evocation of the most diffuse social and spiritual ties. Potlatches provide a clear instance of up for oneself this principle in about Internet Warfare, action. Mauss goes on to trace its appearance in sacrifice ( do ut des ), in early Roman law and in the Germanic wadium , even in the apparently negative instance of alms-giving, where the up for oneself recipient is assumed to be incapable of about making a return except in the form of spiritual deference. A lot of ink has subsequently been spilled on this part of the argument. Mausss concluding chapter addresses the be Legalized? relevance of all this for contemporary societies without offering an explicit analysis of capitalist markets (which we are all supposed to know about). There are three sections: 1. Conclusions de morale 2. Conclusions de sociologie economique et deconomie politique 3. Conclusion de sociologie generale et de morale . Essay Internet! The logic of the structure is that Mauss will consider first moral questions and of the on Airline and Employees, then the economy, returning to Essay about Warfare morality in the context of sociological method more generally. The difficult term for us is morale which in the first instance clearly refers to the science of standing up for oneself ethics that Durkheim aimed for in the Division of Labor , but in Essay about Warfare, the latter case it probably means more generally the human aspiration to place relations between person and society on a just footing of shared morality.

Mausss chief ethical conclusion is who believed in manifest destiny were as that the attempt to create a free market for private contracts is utopian and Internet, just as unrealizable as its antithesis, a collective based solely on altruism. Human institutions everywhere are founded on the unity of individual and society, freedom and obligation, self-interest and concern for others. Modern capitalism rests on an unsustainable attachment to one of these poles and it will take a social revolution to restore a humane balance. If we were not blinded by ideology, we would recognize that the system of prestations survives in our societies in which best the effect narration story?, weddings and at Christmas, in friendly societies and more bureaucratic forms of insurance, even in wage contracts and the welfare state. About Internet! With regard to the Use of Medical be Legalized? Essay the economy, Mauss, who had earlier insisted that the kula valuables are money, if not of the sort we are familiar with, takes Malinowski to task for Essay Internet, reproducing in his typology of transactions the ideological opposition between commercial self-interest and the free gift. The economic movement from Effects of the AMR Corporation Bankruptcy Passengers below that he advocated in his political journalism professional associations, co-operatives, mutual insurance is a secular version of what can be found in the religions of archaic societies, as well as in the central phenomena described here. These are all faits sociaux totaux , total social facts, in the sense that they bring into Internet Warfare play the whole of society and all its institutions legal, economic, religious and aesthetic. Reason! And this is the challenge they pose for sociological method. Mauss claims that he has studied these societies in their dynamic integrity, not as congealed states to be decomposed into analytical instances of rules pertaining to law, myth or value and price. By considering the whole together, we have been able to perceive the essential, the movement of everything, the live dimension, the fleeting moment when society or rather men become aware of the common feelings they have for themselves and Essay about Warfare, others. This concrete observation of Should the Use of Medical Marijuana Essay social life gives us the means of Essay about Internet discovering new facts that we are just beginning to glimpse.

Nothing, in our opinion, is more urgent and fruitful than this study of which following of using social facts. We must follow the example of the Internet Warfare historians and observe what is which of the following reason in favor of using teams? given, rather than split up social phenomena into separate abstractions. Essay Warfare! The reality is always a concrete person acting in society the middle-class Frenchman, the Melanesian of this or that island. Then sociologists will furnish psychologists with material they can use, while maintaining their distinctive pursuit of the social whole and where are you you been, of group behavior as a whole. This is Marcel Mausss manifesto for Essay Internet Warfare, how he will carry forward his uncles academic legacy. In some ways it entails the inversion of Durkheims reductionist program for social science. Effects Bankruptcy On Airline And Employees! It is therefore unsurprising that he is now considered to be a founder of Essay about Warfare modern anthropology more than a sociologist. Lygia Sigaud has provided a trenchant account of The Gift s subsequent trajectory in twentieth-century anthropology which I will just summarize briefly here. She argues that the essay became famous only in the second half of the last century and up for oneself, then in a distorted version that privileged economic exchange to the detriment of Mausss other concerns. The chief culprit is Levi-Strauss whose introduction to Essay about Internet Warfare the collected essays was designed to harness Mausss reputation to his own theory of reciprocity as previously published in The Elementary Structures of where have Kinship . But The Gift really took off as a staple of Anglophone anthropological discourse following Sahlins article, The spirit of the gift, which entrenched Levi-Strausss claim that Mausss essay hinged on a faulty understanding of the Essay Internet Maori concept of which statement best describes the effect of the narration story? hau . She notes that the opposition between commodity economy (the West) and gift economy (the Rest) began to take root after 1980; and she identifies this trend with Carrier (1995) who sought to subvert it, while characterizing the dichotomy as Maussian Occidentalism. We could add that this is the period of neo-liberalism. Sigaud makes no connection between Mausss essay and his political commitments.

The trajectory she describes is a purely academic one. As a result, when trying to account for the remarkable discontinuity between what Mauss wrote and what he is now thought to have written, she relies for about, explanation on the cult of personality and in manifest destiny as, the power of gossip in small-scale oral communities such as academic anthropology. In fact, Chris Gregory launched the modern trend with his book, Gifts and Commodities , even though, as he states in Savage Money , I have never used the distinction between gifts and commodities to classify societies nor have I ever suggested that we are to commodities as they are to gifts. Such an approach is anathema to me. My problem in Gifts and Commodities was to explain the Essay about Internet Warfare paradox, brought about by colonization, of the efflorescence of gift exchange in a world dominated by commodity production and exchange. Which Of The Following In Favor! I characterized Papua New Guinea as an about ambiguous economy where things are now gifts, now commodities, depending on the social context.

Thus I developed the logical opposition between gifts and which of the is a reason in favor of using, commodities in order to about Internet try to understand the ambiguity of the historically specific situation of colonial Papua New Guinea () Ethnographic classification is quite distinct from conceptual division by the logical principle of dichotomy. But it didnt do any good. The fictions employed ingeniously by Effects Bankruptcy on Airline Passengers and Employees Marilyn Strathern in The Gender of the Gift that we (the West or Euroamerica) are opposed to them (the Rest or Melanesia) and that the gift is the conceptual opposite of the commodity in some linked way are now routinely reproduced in introductory anthropology courses everywhere. Mausss text is adduced in support of this notion, even though it is the Warfare very ideology his essay was intended to refute. But then who reads anything closely these days?

The French literature is, for obvious reasons, much more respectful of Mausss actual rather than his invented legacy (Godbout and Caille 2000, Godelier 1999). There are honorable exceptions in the English-speaking tradition, among whom I would include myself. Jonathan Parrys article also argues correctly that the purely altruistic gift was for the effect narration story?, Mauss the inverse of the market conceived of as a sphere of pure self-interest, whereas the archaic gift was a mixture of the two; so that market ideology leads us to think of Christmas presents as pure gifts, an idea that we then project onto our reading of Mausss text. But chief among the exceptions must be counted David Graeber who offers a full-length reanalysis of The Gift , complete with detailed attribution of Mausss socialist views and acknowledgment of the continuation of his intellectual politics by the MAUSS group, among others. It will be interesting to see if this long chapter makes any difference to the wholesale adoption of bourgeois ideology by Essay Anglophone anthropologists who affect disaffection from it, while imagining that Mauss was as opposed to the market as they claim to be, at least in their classrooms. It cannot be said that Marcel Fourniers biography of where where Mauss makes the latters ideas more transparent than they were already. Warfare! But he does show us that his protagonists political engagement is indispensable to understanding his academic production. Moreover, his account of the life should be the people who believed in manifest were known baseline for all future judgment of Mausss intellectual significance.

I believe that the Essay about academic division of labor that shapes contemporary anthropology has passed its sell-by date. Mauss already felt so eighty years ago. Are You Where Have! When we come to consider how anthropology might contribute to the formation of a more just world society, Mausss example will be even more influential than at about, present. In the meantime, his most famous work is generally seen upside down through the camera obscura of ideology (Marx). One thought on “ Marcel Mauss: our guide to the future ” You must be logged in to post a comment.

The two great memory banks are language and money. Exchange of meanings through language and of objects through money are now converging in a single network of communication, the internet. We must learn how to use this digital revolution to advance the human conversation about a better world. Our political task is to the Use of Medical Marijuana make a world society fit for Essay about Warfare, all humanity.

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A* IGCSE Art Coursework: Trinkets, Treasures and Memories. February 8, 2017 by Essay Warfare, Amiria Gale. This A* IGCSE Art Coursework project was completed by people destiny were, Nikau Hindin, while studying at about Internet, ACG Parnell College, Auckland, New Zealand. Awarded 98%, this Painting and Related Media project (CIE 0400) explores the theme of Trinkets, Treasures and Memories. This class-wide theme was split into a number of standing oneself, assignments, which students were able to interpret and Essay about, respond to individually. The following sketchbook pages (14 x A3 sheets) show Nikaus entire Coursework project, along with her final painting (in 2007 a sketchbook of preparatory work was required for the Use of Medical be Legalized? Essay, IGCSE Art and Essay about Internet, Design, rather than the maximum 4 x A2 sheets / 8 sides that is are you where have you been, required today). This outstanding International GCSE Art sketchbook page includes a beautiful combination of single studies (a pen and acrylic drawing of a woven flax / harakeke flower; a shell drawn using chunky oil sticks; a traditional wooden carved Maori comb painted using watercolours) with more complex compositions of personally relevant trinkets and treasures.

The two images on Essay Internet Warfare the left again show objects inside boxes a great compositional strategy to encourage the depiction of Effects of the AMR Corporation and Employees, space and depth. The bottom image is a black and white photograph taken by Nikau, which has been partially cut away, with the missing pieces redrawn. It is worth noting that Nikau has been particularly sensitive with her colour choices, using only muted, earthy colours that complement her theme well. This IGCSE Art example combines a range of Internet Warfare, textured papers and mediums, such as acrylic modelling compound, allowing Nikau to produce an in manifest known as exciting work depicting a collection of Warfare, #8216;paper based#8217; memories (maps, awards, letters, postcards, tickets to events etc). Focusing on the representation of which statement best of the narration on the story?, creases, shadows and surface textures, this exercise encourages students to Warfare, practise drawing forms that are overlapping / folding / tucking under#8230; As with all of the International GCSE Art sketchbook pages in this Coursework project, images are drawn from first-hand observation and from photographs of still life arrangements composed and taken by which of the following is a teams?, the students. This sketchbook page shows a collection of personally relevant clothing items (symbolising important memories) in a range of different black and white mediums such as graphite, charcoal, ink pen, Indian ink and water colour. Artist Analysis: Nikau excels in written subjects as well as Art and Design and this International GCSE Art sketchbook page contains a superb analysis of the artwork of Jim Dine. About Warfare. Along with photocopies of Jim Dine#8217;s work (printed directly onto the sketchbook page) Nikau completes outstanding imitations of his technique, using Indian ink, charcoal and acrylic paint. Having gained a thorough understanding of the way Jim Dine contrasts tight, controlled drawing methods with gestural, expressive mark-making and smudgy backgrounds, these techniques are now confidently applied by Nikau to a selection of the subject matter drawn on her previous pages: a beautiful experimental International GCSE sketchbook page. Although Nikau#8217;s IGCSE Art Coursework project is focused upon Painting and Related Media, this page integrates photography and digital manipulation with photographs of her subject matter merged with abstract grounds and her Jim Dine inspired drawings. This exercise involves a steep learning curve for students as they come to grips with digital art making, however, once basis principles are grasped, students are able to quickly produce dramatic compositions, arriving at AMR Corporation on Airline Passengers and Employees, exciting and original outcomes.

International GCSE Artist Study: Here Nikau analyses the artwork of New Zealand painting Jason Hicks. Alongside written analysis of his compositions, techniques and approach to subject matter, Nikau imitates parts of Essay about, his paintings and draws diagrams of complete works to gain a better understanding of his use of composition. This page in where where you been Nikau#8217;s IGCSE Art portfolio begins the development of Internet Warfare, ideas towards her final piece. Working over who believed known as, grounds with sketches of Essay about Internet, possible compositions (inspired by Jason Hicks and the Use of Medical Essay, Jim Dine) Nikau integrates scanned images of her earlier drawings and paintings in concepts for a final work. With constant evaluation of about Internet Warfare, her compositions, Nikau continues develop and resolve her ideas as she moves towards her final piece. As is demonstrated in many of the IGCSE Art and Design Coursework examples featured on this website, development of ideas is essential within a good student art portfolio. Of The Following Of Using Virtual. Here Nikau cleverly rearranges her subject matter so that the folds of Essay about Internet, cloth take on the appearance of a steep backdrop of hills, with memories symbolising her past etched and of the following is a of using, buried in the fabric landscape. Another beautiful IGCSE Art and Design sketchbook page: showing the final stage of Internet, development, images begin to be painted with a high level of realism, with continued analysis and refinement of composition. The final piece in Nikau#8217;s IGCSE Art portfolio is a large, stunning mixed media acrylic painting. With a highly original composition, a glowing subtle earthy colour scheme and highly controlled, skilful application of paint, this work is an excellent conclusion to her project, showing a highly personal response to the her theme. Nikau is an exceptionally talented, driven and who believed, motivated young artist, whose work is Essay about Internet Warfare, featured extensively on this website.

If you enjoyed seeing this project, you may wish to up for oneself, view her A* IGCSE Art exam, 100% AS Coursework project, AS Art Exam or her A2 Coursework project! This article was written by Amiria Gale. Amiria has been a teacher of Art Design and a Curriculum Co-ordinator for seven years, responsible for the course design and assessment of Art and Essay Warfare, Design work in two high-achieving Auckland schools. Amiria has a Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Bachelor of people who believed were known, Architecture (First Class Honours) and a Graduate Diploma of Teaching. She is Essay about, a CIE Accredited Art Design Coursework Assessor. Follow Student Art Guide on Pinterest. Join over Marijuana be Legalized?, 15,000 people who receive our free newsletter.

You will be notified first when free resources are available: new art project ideas, teaching handouts, printable lesson plans, tips and advice from about Warfare experienced teachers. What are you waiting for?

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How Should You Charge for Freelance Editing? Deciding how to charge for editing can be difficult. Here are some of the issues involved. Occasionally, I am asked to edit something. When I first started out Essay Internet Warfare as a freelancer, I took editing jobs because I had to. Now, though, I try to avoid editing jobs.

Because its not something Im overly fond of. But, if I really like you, I can be induced to edit something for you. One of the of Medical Marijuana be Legalized? Essay reasons I dont like taking editing jobs is because its such a pain to figure out how to charge. Anytime you have to set rates as a freelancer, it requires thought. However, it just seems like setting rates for editing is Essay about much more fraught with difficulty. When you write, its easy to say, This is how much I charge for a blog post.

This is how much I charge for of the is a reason in favor creating a press release. This is Internet what web content will cost you. Editing is a different animal altogether. But, as you consider your rates, here are some things to keep in mind: What Type of Editing Are You Doing? The first task is to identify what type of standing, editing you are doing. About. Different types of editing come with different challenges and people who believed were difficulties. About Warfare. Some types of editing are more involved than others. There are three main types of editing:

Proofreading : This is the easiest type of editing. Proofreading is standing oneself about getting rid of the cosmetic errors. It is usually the last step in the writing/editing process. Its not meant to be comprehensive; when you are proofreading, you shouldnt be re-working text, or re-arranging content. Essay About. Proofreading is about doing a last run-through to catch surface problems with the content. Copy editing : Copy editing is up for about improving style, formatting, and accuracy. Copy editing is Essay Internet Warfare about making sure there arent inconsistencies, and that the style flows well in Effects AMR Corporation Bankruptcy on Airline, addition to being grammatically correct. Essay About Internet Warfare. There are different levels of copy editing: light, medium, and heavy. Light copy editing might consist of double-checking accuracy and taking care of which best narration on the, most grammatical issues.

Medium copy editing includes heavier lifting, such as correcting flow and re-working some of the text. With heavy copy editing, the editor might re-structure some paragraphs, or heavily correct style, flow, and grammar. Content editing : When you are involved in content editing, the work is much more intensive. You might need to add things that were left out, or re-write sections of content. This takes copy editing to the next level, and can include some level of content creation along with making corrections. Your first job is to figure out which type of editing will be done. The harder the work, the more you should charge. Once you figure out what type of work you will be doing, you need to Essay about, figure out how you will charge. Effects Of The Bankruptcy. If you charge hourly, often the difficulty takes care of itself.

After all, the more intense your efforts, the Essay Internet longer it will take, and standing oneself the more the job will pay. A beginning editor can expect to charge right around $20 an hour. Essay About Internet. However, an which is a of using experienced content editor can charge more, as much as $50 to $85 an hour. Even as a proofreader, after you have established yourself, you can charge $25 $35 an Essay about Internet Warfare hour. Another option is to charge by the page. (Its possible to charge by the word, but that can get tricky in destiny were known, some cases, especially if you have to add quite a bit.) Many editors like to charge by the page. About Warfare. When charging by the page, the type of editing matters.

According to The Writers Market, the average for proofreading is $3 per page, for copy editing $4 per page, and for content editing you can expect to charge around $7.50 per Effects of the Bankruptcy on Airline, page. I have charged both hourly, and per-page, and dont really have a preference. When Im going through and Essay Internet editing old posts that a blogger might have, I often charge by the hour. When I have a manuscript, though, I usually charge by the page. In the end, though, its about how much experience you have, and how much work you are putting in. Image source: The Land via Wikimedia Commons.

101 Responses to How Should You Charge for Freelance Editing? I am finding that figuring out how much to the Use Essay, charge for Essay about self-employment is among the be Legalized? Essay most difficult parts of the Essay about Warfare whole process. Being paid for your time and not driving away customers is difficult, since the business I am starting is in tax preparation. The free programs are generally okay, but I find they each seem to have their quirks. Standing. The large franchises charge a premium based on their overhead and franchise costs. The do-it-yourself programs are nice, but if the user has a concept error, their only assistance is someone on the other end of a phone, reading from a playbook.

Trying to find that balance between what you think youre worth, and about Internet Warfare what others think youre worth, is definitely hard. Effects Of The AMR Corporation On Airline Passengers. And I can see where it would be hard with tax prep, since there are so many cheap programs. But Im right there with you. I have an accountant that Ive used for years do my taxes. Its worth the money to get that personal service. This was a very timely post for me! Question, how are you providing your editing remarks to Essay, your clients.

I use track changes and comments in word to mark up their original Word docand I also provide a clean edit version so they can read how it flows without being interrupted by the mark-ups. My rates are a good bit higher especially for content editing than what you noted. It can take 1/4 1/2 hour to where have, content edit a page depending on about Internet Warfare, the condition of the original draft so $7.50 would be a tad too low. The Use Of Medical Marijuana Be Legalized?. Plus theres the time for collaborating with the author I agree that its hard to figure out about Warfare what to charge. I think Id be more inclined to do it per-hour, instead of per-page. Like you, I thought the $7.50 per oneself, page sounded a little low for Essay Internet Warfare content editing, but thats what I could find on a couple of different sites. Like you, I use track changes, plus a clean one, when track changes is possible.

Ive made necessary content edits (translation from English to Spanish) and where where have the client continues to change the layout and format. He then sends it back to me to proofread and he hasnt made the necessary corrections. This has gone back and forth 3 times. Should I switch to an hourly rate instead of my per Essay Internet, page rate? If you have clients that repeatedly do this, then yes, an hourly approach might work better. Which Statement Best The Effect Story?. And you need to point out that the client isnt making the necessary corrections and you are repeating work already done. Could you also consider the about Internet Warfare new layout and format as new pages to edit in people destiny were as, addition to the original pages and add them to the total # of about, pages you edit and charge accordingly? Charging for formatting should, IMO, be something different. I usually base my prices on what they send me originally. If I need to in manifest destiny known as, do a great deal of Essay about Warfare, formatting, or substantially alter something, I get back to the client and try to work out what they feel works in terms of standing up for oneself, a separate charge. Makes sense.

The reason I ask is that when I was an independent contractor designing training for the Federal government, clients would often come back with changes typically additions during revision that were beyond the Essay Internet scope of the original agreement. Up For Oneself. I learned to watch out for that and to let the client know that these new additions were beyond the Essay about Warfare scope of the original contract and let them know the which statement best describes the effect of the on the additional cost of making those changes. Ive done a little myself and we decided on a set rate for below 500 words and Essay Internet 500-1000 words. Should The Use Marijuana. It seems fair as its more in the proofreading category. Are those prices based on single or double-spaces manuscript pages? I feel like Im desperately undercharging! I think single-spaced. So about 500 words per page. I could be a little off, though. Warfare. In the end, you charge what you think you can get, and what the market bears. AMR Corporation Bankruptcy. But $7.50 for Essay about Internet each 500 words isnt unreasonable for a good editor, I dont think.

I found your article quite helpful. If I could impose, I thought Id ask for your opinion on a delicate issue, which freelancers might face from time to time. How do you handle requests for editing a large project for charitable purposes. In this case, one of my wifes colleagues is writing a book about people who believed destiny were known as his experiences with leukemia. Essay About. He says it will be partly a fundraiser for The Leukemia Society as well as for his own future medical expenses. Hes planning on where you been, 85K words and has about 60K completed. It seems he needs something between proofreading and content editing. I dont have to Essay about, tell you how much work this will be. Im going to do it for up for him pro bono, but in general, how would you handle such requests? There is a reality that one is operating a business and only has so much time.

If I believe in the cause, Im happy to about Internet, help out, gratis. But I do warn that it might be slower going, since I have to fit it around the paid work. And, there are times that, just as when you have to say no, you need to Effects on Airline, pass. Really it comes down to what you can handle, and what you have time for. And for a large project like that, I would be up front about Essay it taking a little bit longer. Following In Favor. You want to help out, but you also need to earn a living. Sounds like we are on the same page. Ive been told on this topic, first to quote my usual price, but then to say, But for you Ill do it for free. This give you the Essay about acknowledgement of your worth, and then allows you to make such a gift. Everyone knows then what is truly going on.

Makes everyone act differently re: gratitude, etc. Also there is the which following is a in favor teams? matter of a receipt, and tax purposes. The quote is about needed. Such a strategy could also lead to a tax deduction for charitable contributions. This reminds me of my poetry. People started asking me for standing poems for their weddings, anniversaries, etc.

Finally, I started giving them a price and they stopped asking. You should also prepare a quote and track the time you spend on the pro-bono project for tax purposes. That would go under the heading of about Internet, volunteer time and is applicable for your income taxes in most states. Youre not getting paid, you might as well get a little tax break for your time. Thank you. Ive done a lot of people who believed, editing as a favor in about Internet, my writers group, but am now being asked outside of that group and I didnt have a clue. I believe Ill charge by the single space page.

This might be a silly question, but if Im providing light copy editing and proofreading together, is the rate combined? (Ex. Which Statement The Effect Narration. if a going rate for proofreading is $3/hr and Essay about Warfare light copy editing $4/hr would you combine both under the $4 rate?). Thank you for Effects of the AMR Corporation on Airline Passengers and Employees your website. It is very user friendly and informative! The proofreading is about sort of part of the light editing, so I would combine them. Although I wouldnt charge so little!

Hi, Tracy! Just wanted to point something out real quick: Your message says $3 per HOUR for proofing and $4 per HOUR for light copyediting, but I think you meant per PAGE, as Miranda writes in her blog post. Is that right? Thats probably why she thought your rate was so lowyou changed it to $3 or $4 per hour instead of per page. #128578; If you think a company may want to use you on a regular basis, what would you think about charging a kind of retainer fee, i.e., per are you you been, month or per issue if a publication. A retainer can make sense, if it is ongoing work. You just need to make sure that the retainer is sufficient to cover the time you spend when you are required to work. Another thought if it is ongoing or a very large project is to ask the customer for your monthly rate of your cloud program. For example, I always use Adobe InDesign to Essay Internet, give the customer the where are you where have you been final look of what the text should look like as well as a word document.

So, in other words, in Essay Internet Warfare, addition to the page or hourly rate would be a $20 a month rate for programs used. Enjoyed your article but my question is what does one charge for who believed destiny as website proofing/ copy editing. Like you, Im more of an Essay about article writer and have my rates I use. However, I have no idea what to charge for people destiny known this kind of project. $20.00 an hour sounds fair to me because there are several pages/ links to go over. Any input you have about this type project would be helpful. Hi Doug, it really depends on what kind of editing you are doing. $20 is probably good for simple proofing, but if you are more experienced, you might want to charge $25 to $30 per hour. More in-depth editing, where you are line-editing, and Essay Internet Warfare you are dealing with a lot of links, is probably something more int eh $40 to in favor of using teams?, $50 range. If you are doing a lot with links, and cleaning it up and doing SEO, you might want to Essay about Internet, charge around $60 or $70 per hour. I know really good editors who charge $100 to $120 an hour, but that might not be feasible in your situation.

The real issue, though, is whether or not that $20 per standing oneself, hour is worth giving up writing gigs to Essay about Internet, do the of the following reason teams? editing. When I work out my hourly rate, its not worth it for me to do editing when I could be writing something instead. The problem with editing, and doing it on an hourly basis, is that youll only make that much each hour, and you might be able to do something more profitable. About Warfare. I stopped taking editing jobs because no matter how much I make hourly for editing, my time is more profitably spent writing an article or two. You know, if it wasnt for websites like yours, I really doubt I ever be able to of Medical, figuire all of this stuff out. This has been very helpful as I am considering being a editor and offering my services to people. Theres a lot to learn about all this and its very helpful to have people like you writing about all this. Essay About Internet. Now I am wondering if I offer to all three types of editing should I still charge only 20 dollars a hour for each?

If you charge by the hour, you should charge differently based on AMR Corporation on Airline Passengers and Employees, the type of editing. The more in-depth it is, the more you should charge. It doesnt need to be a lot more, but it could be a little more. My question is about quoting hourly rates in generalthat is, before a manuscript has been seen. Im just getting started in freelancing editing skills developed in Corporation Land. I tend to evaluate any piece from the Essay Warfare copy editing point of view with a strong impulse toward content editing. And, my natural inclination is to work dirt cheap. Thanks to Should of Medical be Legalized? Essay, your discussion here, I see thats not necessary (and certainly not desirable on Essay Internet Warfare, my part). What method might I propose up front to assure a potential client that the time I would charge reflects actual time spent on various types of are you where have, editing? What do you (or other lancers) suggest? Normally I ask to see the manuscript before I quote a price, and I make sure that the client understands what type of editing they want.

That allows me to make a more accurate quote during the about Warfare times I actually agree to edit something. Very informative however I find the per page rate, even at $7.50 per who believed in manifest destiny known, page, incredibly low; and the hourly rate only works if youre going to be able to calibrate realistically how many hours youre going to take most of the authors I deal with are small, self publishing ones. Warfare. They are concerned about freelancers padding the which following is a reason virtual teams? hours to make the rate higher. I thought a combination of $8.50 to Internet, $10.00 per page, plus an additional collaboration rate of $30 to Bankruptcy on Airline Passengers, $50 an hour with the Essay about Internet Warfare author, would be a pretty decent rate. Of Medical Marijuana Be Legalized?. Then you could get an initial deposit of 50% on the current number of pages, and work out the Essay balance upon the finalized copy, plus time spent consulting with the author before, during and after the completion. It would be much better balanced and worth the time and effort. What do you think? Thats an interesting take. I like the idea of trying new ways of charging to make the experience more beneficial for AMR Corporation Bankruptcy everyone involved.

I really love your ideas, Gloria Dulan-Wilson!! I am going to write this down and use it to Essay Warfare, develop my price structure! I just received my first request for book editing in the non-ficton category and had no clue how to who believed in manifest destiny as, structure my pricing to come up with a fair quote for both me and the client. By charging different rates for the editing and consultation, and basing the original quote on the initial page count or word count, it seems more fair to both parties. Also, charging a greater fee for the consultation portion brands the writer/editor as more professional in the value of their time and effort.

Great response! This is about Warfare almost the route I plan on taking. I know some clients may be skeptical about the Use of Medical be Legalized? the per hour charge and the actual bill. If the Internet Warfare that time was actually used editing and Should the Use Marijuana Essay proofreading. Your approach is balanced! Hi Miranda. Im grateful to have come upon your site.

Im retired and about Internet Warfare having my own home-based typing service doing what Ive done for the past 40 years is my ultimate goal; retired at the age of 54 after 30 years of government service. I have always put my skills to work outside of my employment; especially as a single parent. Of The Following Is A Reason Virtual Teams?. Ive typed book chapters, proofread and edited religious books, dictaphone transcription, resumes, wills, forms, startup business cards and forms, contracts, basic copy editing, online research and typing to about Internet Warfare, name a few LOL! Can you give me some pointers on where have you been, putting it all together to Essay, run a home-based typing service? Where do I advertise I live in Miami, Florida. Your expertise would be greatly appreciated. It appears, from the comments of have, others on your site, that Ive been charging way too little for a long time. I suggest looking online for virtual assistant jobs, and being active online.

It helps to have an online presence. A blog, and a LinkedIn account are good places to start. People are always looking online for that type of help. I am starting my firt official Freelance editing job as something for fun. Essay About Internet Warfare. I am new at this and the financial part ( in the sense of rates) scares me and I want to which describes, be reasonable since I am doing this for a friend. I enjoy all parts of writing including editing for myself and yes- even for others. So I am more comfortable with your rate $7.50 per Essay about, page for friends because I am editing a novel right now as we speak and this is a book not meant to be on the caleber of Harry Potter, Twilight series, The Hunger Games series, or other popular books that have turned into movies and T.V series.

Now if that was the case and which following in favor my friend was looking for about Warfare her novel to be main stream then yes I would see the rates as Gloria would. Please give me advice and comments on how to make sure my conpensation is subtantial and she is not left with nothing. Doing work for friends is where are you have you been always tricky. Id stick with something lower, since she is your friend and you hoping to do it for fun. Internet. Plus, maybe offering a discount could mean a free copy of the book when its published! Did you mean first instead of firt, caliber instead of caleber, mainstream instead of main stream, compensation, instead of conpensation, substantial instead of Subtantial? I need to hire someone to edit my papers as English is not my first language, but Im not willing to pay $7.50 to anyone with glaring copy editing errors. Ouch, Star!

This is Bankruptcy on Airline and Employees a great site. It is always advisable to have an editor. Essay Internet. All writers make mistakes in their own copy. Hence the editors! I encourage you to hire an excellent professional like Miranda. And, as she points out, she refers to Should of Medical be Legalized?, averages when she quotes $7.50. Freelancers appreciate straight forward clients, but no one wants to work with nastiness. Thank you, Miranda, for a stellar site, with great information! Oh, thank you for your kind words! Im an English Language teacher and do paid editing and writing work on Essay, the side.

20 years of teaching, along with a Masters degree in English from the UK, have given me immense experience. Picking out grammatical goof-ups, punctuation problems, skewed sentence structure and poor paragraphing are second nature to me. Let me know if you want help with your papers. Im glad you pointed that out. Yes, we all make mistakes. Standing. However, this person had multiple mistakes and obviously didnt even proofread her own work. I was asked earlier today by a coworker to Essay about Internet, proofread her blog just before she sends it out and, she wants to know how much I will charge her. This is new to me, to charge that is. Ive recently did some proofreading, copy editing and content editing for, her free of charge.

As a beginner, how do I rate blogs? Can you please help me figure this out? thanks, Susan. Hi Susan, Id rate them the same as you rate other types of proofing and editing. Its really a marketing move, so Id charge about what youd charge for these services in general. You could provide a discount to friends and family, though. I just wanted to where where, drop by Warfare and say that this article is helping me immensely in creating a website for where are you where my freelance nonfiction editing services! I appreciate freelancers like you who provide this type of information. I couldnt find a date on this article.

Im updating my rates as a part-time writer/editor. Its probably a couple of about Internet Warfare, years ago. The rates are probably still pretty close. People Who Believed Destiny Known. But as you update your rates, you want to base them on where youre at now, and move up from there. There is good information here but still no date. A couple of years ago is not helpful without some reference. Most guidelines for evaluating the quality and reliability of Internet, online sources mention the of Medical Marijuana be Legalized? Essay need for Essay about Internet Warfare clearly dated information.

FYI Today is December 5, 2016. Im glad I came across your site. I was just approached with eduting a 70 page book project. Ive never edited a book.before but I have a professional background in editing and writing for national print publications and digital magazines. Im thinking $40 an hour but dont want to overcharge. I also need to find out what type of editing is involved. What are your thoughts on book projects?

When editing book projects I usually charge what I would for most others, by the page. Like you said, it depends on which following of using virtual teams?, the type of editing you will be doing. Additionally, with book editing, you might need to charge a little more if they expect you to watch for plot points and Internet continuity (depending on the type of book). I am working for the Use of Medical Marijuana be Legalized? friends but as a business arrangement (they have a lot of Essay about Internet Warfare, papers to be edited almost weekly and I do this is in addition to my full time+ professional job, so its not for fun). I read elsewhere that $7/page was a low price so I thought that would be fair for friends. I realized, however, that their papers are all double-spaced, so now I feel like Im charging too much. Im performing heavy copy editing and content editing, which sometimes includes research, re-writing, and Should of Medical Essay doing a couple pages of references from about Internet Warfare, publications they either provide or I look up.

The collaboration time also is substantial as they like to be present during a big part of the process (sometimes we talk through ideas, etc. for people who believed in manifest were known as several hours). Am I really charging too much? They seemed fine with paying me this amount (in fact, one friend offered more initially). Essay Internet Warfare. I was thinking of offering them a lower rate in the future if they can simply send me their papers and allow me to work more independently without the face-to-face time. My rationale would be that I have a pretty good understanding of what they want at this point and could save time for both parties by communicating via email or text when necessary. Honestly, if your friends are happy with the arrangement, theres no need to Should of Medical Marijuana Essay, change things up. Part of deciding what is too much is when clients (or friends) balk. Essay Internet Warfare. If no ones balking, everyone wins. I have written poetry and short stories since my teen years but have done nothing professionally. I am wondering if it is important for a writer or editor to know the difference between fiction and nonfiction? It can help since there are different styles involved.

When looking for an editor, I prefer someone who is well-versed in Effects AMR Corporation Passengers and Employees, the genre. Thanks for this very useful information. About Warfare. Are these rates up to date (i.e. Jan 2016)? Not really. They havent moved much, so you can use them as a starting point. What do you consider experience? I have 35 years of the Use be Legalized?, editing experience as an English teacher. Essay Internet. In what ways can this count towards being experienced? Thank-you. I definitely thing you can leverage 35 years of experience as an English teacher into a higher pay rate.

How long ago was this written? Are the standing up for oneself fees for proofreading services as described in this article still up-to-date? They arent too far off, still. You can always search to see what others are charging. In some cases, it really is the Essay Internet Warfare wild, wild west out here in Internet land. The Editorial Freelancers Association has recently updated their rate chart (note: the you been ranges are not prescriptive).

Fees range according to location, experience level, and other factors, so Id take the fee ranges on the chart as guidelines. Go here to Warfare, see: http://www.the-efa.org/res/rates.php. Thank you Freeman. This is really helpful information, Miranda! Thank you for laying this out statement describes the effect with specificity AND room for variations for experience, etc.

Have a good week! Editing tips above are so helpful. How much should be charged per page for writing? Also, if you have a prospective client who needs proofreading. An editor has already edited the Essay about Internet Warfare document. Where Where Have. Should the client provide a style sheet from his editor? If none is Internet available, should I charge extra for in manifest were known as creating my own? Id need to Essay Internet, create one to follow so I remember what styles have been done. This is a 250 page book. You can ask for a stylesheet from the editor so that you understand what you are doing.

Up to you whether or not you want to charge extra for of the AMR Corporation on Airline and Employees creating the about Internet style sheet. If you think it will take very long time, Then maybe you should charge. Which Following Virtual. But if its something that only takes a few minutes, you might not need to. How do I start getting paid for Essay Internet Warfare editing/reviewing books? I have always been a reader and I review on a site that I track what Ive read.

Here lately, Ive gotten an overwhelming amount of AMR Corporation Bankruptcy on Airline, authors wanting me to edit/review their material. I need to about Internet, turn this into a stream of income. Can you help me get started? If people are asking you to edit their stuff, start charging them. When someone asks you to edit something, say I would love to this is my rate. You can also look on job boards for people who want editors. Thank you so much for where your response. Where can I find job boards for editors? Im new to Essay about, your site.

Its very interesting. Which Statement Describes Narration. I have been thinking about doing some proofreading for court reporters. Essay. I think I would prefer to have, charge by Essay about Internet Warfare the page. Do you think the rates would be the same as other proofreaders? I dont have any formal training.

I usually proofread for Should Essay friends, relatives, and coworkers right now. I really enjoy it. I was planning on getting a medical dictionary and Essay Warfare The Gregg Reference Manual to start. I also found a good online legal dictionary I can use. You can always charge more when you have training and experience, so you might need to start out at of Medical be Legalized? Essay the low end. Getting reference tools is always a good way to go.

Good luck! I was recently hired to copy edit a manuscript. Essay Warfare. I generally charge by who believed as the page and told writer my rate. Essay Internet. She told me she had 225 pages. We agreed and of the following reason in favor of using virtual she sent me the about Internet manuscripta single, 225 page paragraph. I spent equal amounts of time cursing my stupidity at not previewing the work before taking the job, and people who believed in manifest destiny were known laughing at myself. I decided that I will no longer charge by the page. Essay. You live and learn. Alls I can sayd, is that, with all this proofreaders, and editers in hear their better not be any typoes, or stuff!

A potential client and friend sent me a manuscript to review for editing, proofreading and anything else that needs to be corrected as a trial run. Should I charge for this? Its 136 pages. Is this customary? I dont mind at all since I am a newly professional. But Id like to are you have you been, start things off on the right foot and couldnt say with certainty this wont take more time than originally thought. Your insight (and others) would be greatly appreciated. If you want to Essay Warfare, help your friend, I suggest charging a small amount. The time you spend working on this manuscript means that you wont have time to do other paying work, so a little compensation isnt a bad thing. I love this.

I was asked to simply proofread a book and I didnt think it fair to charge as much as my copy editing rate. I dont normally even do copy editing either (I do content writing and statement best on the story? management for digital media with monthly fees for about Internet regular clients). I thought, well, Id like to charge $25 to make this fair for both of us. And, yeah, the which statement best the effect of the narration on the prospect is someone I really like! Im so glad I found this site as I have been asked how much I would charge to proofread by a brand new author. Essay About. Im not working so I have been known to read all day long.

Depending on the size of the novel it could be 2 or 3 books per day. I often read an ARC with the promise for Should the Use of Medical Marijuana Essay an honest review. I do take the time to notify the author of errors if I find any. However I am not trained so Im wondering if $20.00/hour or $3.00/page if a fair price? And is there a way of determining which price is more favorable?

Is it based on about Internet Warfare, content? Length of story? If I could parlay my love of reading into a job what a wonderful world this would be! Editing rates can vary widely based on years of experience, areas of expertise, and most of all LOCATION (i.e., cost of living). I have over of Medical Marijuana Essay 30 years of professional experience; I specialize in environmental, engineering, geoscience, health safety, and other technical documents; and Im located in the San Francisco Bay Area.

My rates as of Essay, 2016 range from $90 to $120 an hour. This article is very helpful. Thank you for writing it. My question is, how do you accept payment for jobs? Do you have a credit card service service set up, or do you use PayPal? Do you require payment upfront? How do you deal with clients who arent happy with your work (not with the grammatical correctionsthose cant be arguedbut with the more subjective types of input)? Do you refund them at were known as all? Sorry if these questions are weird or too invasive. Im brand new to this. I like PayPal.

PayPal can accept credit cards. Essay Warfare. However, you have to deal with fees. Standing. Many designers offer a set number of revisions. Essay About Internet. You have to ask a lot of questions up front if you want to get an idea of what they want. I like to get paid half up front for large, one-time projects and half at the end. Thanks for statement the effect story? the helpful information, Miranda. I am kick-starting my editing career and am looking into about, helping my future clients with resumes. In the beginning of standing oneself, your editing career, what did you charge for editing and/or helping to construct resumes and cover letters? I started by charging about $15 an hour, but it feels low to me now. Other people I know, though, have a flat-fee structure for that kind of service work. Resume and cover letters can have fees of anywhere between $30 and $300, depending on how much needs to be done.

I dont do much in terms of resumes and cover letters, though. I was directed to this site by a friend, whom I asked for advice. Internet. I appreciate the advice here, but am also getting a kick out of all the errors from people who say they are already doing a lot of is a reason of using teams?, editing! No I am definitely not perfect, but I try to proof my copy (email, FB post, whatever) before I hit send!! Very Interesting article. My experience as an editor and Essay translator over the past six years bears a lot of this out too. However, I find my biggest challenge is have you been actually identifying beforehand what type of editing work will be required to fix the text and put it in about Internet, its best form for the client. A few times Ive thought I had a proofreading job, but once Ive started the best of the narration story? job, to Essay about Internet Warfare, get the text to where it needs to be actually required light to medium copyediting work. Its difficult to then, at that late point, raise a price from the Should of Medical Marijuana be Legalized? Essay estimate, even by explaining to the client why, and so I have ended up working very cheaply for what is substantially more work. Nowadays this happens less as almost all my clients do need copyediting work, so thats what I generally quote. I guess I just wondered if anyone else has any thoughts or tips on quickly identifying what level of work will be required for a project before starting it without having to spend more than 15 minutes to produce the quote?

I think this is an even more pressing decision than knowing what to charge once you have decided. GREAT information, Miranda! I, too, have started an editing business. For those wondering about the Internet best ways to get your name out there for promoting the Should Marijuana be Legalized? business, create a business page on Facebook. I have one and its fantastic! (Look me up its called Make The Message). You can list all of your services, fees, add an email contact, and more. Customize it any way you like with pictures, logos, your web site, etc. As I am a bit of a PowerPoint junkie, I also have services like creating funeral/wedding programs, social media event flyers, and even transcription. Great page, Heather! Id like to start doing some copy editing online and was wondering how I would market such a service to find work. How successful has your page been in terms of getting jobs?

Miranda: Ive been practicing law for 26 years but am now semi-retired. Essay. Over my career I have written countless trial level and appellate briefs, memoranda of law, persuasive arguments and proposed orders. Such documents were drafted, re-drafted and edited many times. I consider myself qualified as an experienced proofreader and editor. I have been asked to up for, proofread a dissertation for a Ph.D. candidate.

Would you anticipate that such a document must conform to a specific format as directed by the university or dissertation committee? Based on the commentary on this site, I have an Essay about idea as to standing up for, how much to charge for about Internet such work. The Ph.D. candidate speaks Spanish with ESL. Your comments are appreciated. Ive worked professionally as an in-house editor for many years, but because of where where have you been, a recent move due to my spouses job, Ive been moving into some freelance work, and am (like many of the about Internet people commenting) struggling with how to set my rates. Im familiar with a lot of the which describes of the story? sites people have mentioned (EFA, ACES, etc.), and have found them helpful, but Im wondering if any of you have ideas about about how to charge for which statement of the narration on the story? last-minute requests. I have a potential client who has said they may need to send things with a very fast turnaround. Im open to the work, but want to protect my time for about other clients. Does anyone add a surcharge for last-minute requests?

Thanks! I often add a surcharge of $75 $150 (or more) depending on best describes of the narration on the, the rush. How do you feel about Warfare a project rate? Like you, I am no longer a fan of editing because I always get the short end of the stick. I hesitate on an hourly fee for some projects, since it can vary so much from editor to editor and that doesnt always translate into quality. The page rate can get confusing especially since some charge on double-spaced pages and others single (all based, I believe, on 12-point font). The project Im looking at is close to 20,000 words.

A project rate is really in essence a page rate or somewhat based on that. Where You Been. Based on lets say 250 words per page, were looking at up to 80 pages. At $5 per hour (for light to medium editing, Id say), it would be $400. Im thinking of offering the project for $350 as long as it stays under no more than 10 hours (Ive edited before for Essay Internet $40/hour, page rate at best describes the effect $5, and about Warfare project priced), along with first a free sample (a couple of pages offered with time it takes me) especially because its my first work for Effects and Employees him and there may be more he has in mind (he indicated). Thoughts? Whenever possible, I prefer to charge a project rate. Essay. I estimate what a potential per-page cost might be, and then add a buffer to it and of the Bankruptcy on Airline quote on the project. Its just easier in general to Essay Internet, give them a package.

You didnt mention what currency. Are you quote USD or something else? Also you didnt mention the size of the page A5, A4 something else? Thanks for the information, though, very useful. Hi Miranda. I found the where where have information you provided to be most helpful. A friend of mine recently asked me how much I would charge to edit a devotional for him. I honestly had no idea what to tell him. To my delight, I happened upon your article, which has given me useful information. Internet Warfare. Thanks.

Im curious to oneself, know how current your introduction and about the comments are, as there are no dates attached to any of them. The reason I ask is that $25 an hour ten years ago would be $30 in which best on the story?, 2017, and Essay about Internet $25 in 1997 would translate to almost $40 now. I have been asked to edit a 65,000-word/210-page book and, even though I taught English for over 40 years and had two books published (using the in-house editor), I have no idea how much or how to charge (i.e., per AMR Corporation Bankruptcy on Airline, hour or per about Internet Warfare, page). Any suggestions would be most welcome and appreciated. Hi. I have to relate a story to you. I read a book recently and couldnt let it slip. Being one who doesnt subscribe to which statement the effect of the narration on the story?, the principles of Essay Warfare, being politically correct and sacred cows I just had to Bankruptcy Passengers, contact the author and tell her after the first 2 of 126 pages that it was total garbage but I was still going to about, finish it.

I however was certainly not going to read anything else she produced going forward and I said it to her. In Manifest Destiny Were As. I informed her that if no one else had said this to her in the past she needed a new set of about Warfare, friends and she should divorce her husband post haste. It was that bad. She wrote back and was sincere in her apologies so I offered to look at her next book and Should the Use of Medical be Legalized? find as many faults as I could before she put it out there. In exchange she would purchase a book from Essay about Warfare, me (Getting The Neighbor To Work by Iami N. Cognito)for the best the effect of the narration story? princely sum of $3.00. Essay About. The result is the Use Marijuana be Legalized? Essay that in addition to about, profusely, repeatedly thanking me she is now asking me to be on her editing team. She went further and sent me that initial book I had told her was garbage and asked if I would be interested in sorting it out for Marijuana be Legalized? Essay her. My dilemma is how much to charge which landed me on this page, lol. I was doing punctuation, proofreading, rearranging sentences, the works.

In one paragraph she used the word she to start 4 consecutive you get the about picture. This piece here I found it timely and informative. I have a concern though. I wish posts were dated so I would know if they were made last week or 10 years ago. Are You Have. As things are Im not even sure when the Internet piece was written so I can determine if the which of the following is a reason in favor rates suggested are still relevant.

Thanks though as it has helped. How HAPPY I am that your name, Miranda, came up on Google, and I clicked on Essay about Internet, your site. Of The AMR Corporation Bankruptcy On Airline Passengers And Employees. What an encouragement you, and all those who posted a question and/or reply, have been to Essay Internet Warfare, me, especially because this will be my first time editing a creative non-fiction book. I too, was looking for a rate to charge my first client, and realize that just because its my first time, doesnt mean I need to come in with too low a price. Editing and the English language has always come naturally for Effects of the Bankruptcy on Airline Passengers me, especially being a former language arts teacher, and having edited and Warfare published my own book, so I look forward to people who believed as, a nice little side career being a freelance editor!

I feel to charge my client $4/page, and the consultation fee as it was mentioned above.